Explanation Text dan Soal Essay Dengan Kunci Jawaban Untuk lampiran atau Appendix Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Part 2

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This text is for questions number 1 to 5

   Grand Canyon is the result of a l combination of geologic events. The term “canyon” is a type of erosional valley with extremely steep sides, frequently forming vertical or nearly vertical cliff faces. The term “gorge” is often used interchangeably with “canyon” and generally implies a smaller, particularly narrow feature. 

   The story begins almost two billion years ago with the formation of the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the inner gorge. Above these old rocks lie layer upon layer of sedimentary rock, each telling a unique part of the environmental history of the Grand Canyon region. 

   Then, between 70 and 30 million years ago, through the action of plate tectonics, the whole region was uplifted, resulting in the high and relatively flat Colorado Plateau. The uplift of the Colorado Plateau was a key step in the eventual formation of Grand Canyon. The action of plate tectonics lifted the rocks high and flat, creating a plateau through which the Colorado River could cut down. 

  There are two currently favored hypotheses which are called shallow-angle subduction and continued uplift through isostacy. Shallow-angle subduction allowed for deformation to move further inward from the plate margin. Different from the theory, some scientists believe that uplift of the Colorado Plateau continued into the middle to late Cenozoic. This is the theory of continued uplift.
   Finally, beginning just 5-6 million years ago, the Colorado River began to carve its way downward. Further erosion by tributary streams led to the canyon’s widening. 

1. What does the writer want to do through the text?
A. Describe a place called Grand Canyon.
B. Explain about the formation of Grand Canyon.
C. Explain the procedure of visiting Grand Canyon.
D. Describe the physical characteristics of Grand Canyon.
E. Persuade readers that Grand Canyon is a natural phenomenon.

2. Which of the following processes has no direct relationship with the formation of Grand Canyon?
A. Shallow-angle subduction.
B. Formation of Colorado Plateau.
C. Continued uplift through isostacy.
D. The formation of sedimentary rocks.
E. Colorado River carved its way downward. 

3. What causes the Grand Canyon to expand?
A. Erosion by tributary streams
B. Shallow-angle subduction 
C. Action of tectonic plates
D. Rock sedimentation
E. Continued uplift

4. It can be understood from paragraph 3 that….
A. The action of the plate tectonics created the Colorado River.
B. Grand Canyon was formed because of abrasion in Colorado River.
C. Colorado Plateau was resulted by the formation of Grand Canyon.
D. Colorado Plateau was formed after the formation of Grand Canyon.
E. The uplift of Colorado Plateau generates the formation of Grand Canyon
5. According to the shallow-angle subduction theory, the Grand Canyon …by the deformation of the plate tectonics.
A. caused
B. was formed
C. deformated
D. which was formed
E. which was influenced

This text is for questions number 6 to 10

   A natural disaster is a terrible accident, e.g. a great flood, a big fire or an earthquake. It usually causes great suffering and loss of a large sum of money. The casualties are injured or died. Some people are homeless and need medical care.

   Floods occur when the water of rivers, lakes, or streams overflow their banks and pour onto the surrounding land. Floods are caused by many different things. Often heavy rainstorms that last for a brief can cause a flood. But not all heavy storms are followed by flooding. If the surrounding land is flat and can absorb the water, no flooding will occur. If the land cannot absorb the rainwater, floods occur. Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowland.

   In many parts of the world floods are caused by tropical storms called hurricanes or typhoons. They bring destructive winds of high speed, torrents of rain, and flooding. When a flood occurs, the destruction to surrounding land can be severe. Whole villages and towns are sometimes swept away by water pouring swiftly over the land. Railroad track blocked and uprooted from their beds. Highways are washed away.

   Fire disaster in housings are usually caused by some factors such as cooking equipment, heating, smoking in bedrooms, electrical equipment, candles, and so on. Fire disasters that happen in wildlife or forested land (called wildfire) occur when vegetated areas are set alight and are particularly common during hot and dry periods. They can occur in forests, grasslands, brush and deserts, and with sufficient wind can rapidly spread

6. What is the writer’s intention in writing the text?
A. To describe the causes of floods.
B. To describe the effects of fire disaster.
C. To explain the causes of some natural disasters.
D. To explain the suffering and casualties caused by floods.
E. To explain what people should do to prevent disaster. 
8. What is the main idea of paragraph 4?
A. Wildfire occur when vegetated areas are set alight.
B. Fire disaster in housings are usually caused by some factors.
C. There are factors causing fire disasters in housings and in wildlife.
D. Carelessness in using equipment can cause fire in housings.
E. Wildfire usually occurs in dry season. 

9. Which of the followings should be the best topic of the NEXT paragraph?
A. The causes of floods.
B. The effects of floods.
C. The causes of fire disasters.
D. The causes of earthquakes.
E. How to avoid fire disasters.

10. “Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowland” (Paragraph 2). The underlined word is synonymous with ….

A. over

B. under 

C. beside

D. nearby

E. beneath

The following text is for questions number 11 to 15

    Tropical cyclone, also called typhoon or hurricane, is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain. Drawing energy from the sea surface and maintaining its strength as long as it remains over warm water, a tropical cyclone generates winds that exceed 119 km per hour. In extreme cases winds may exceed 240 km per hour, and gusts may surpass 320 km per hour. Accompanying these strong winds are torrential rains and a devastating phenomenon known as the storm surge, an elevation of the sea surface that can reach 6 metres above normal levels. Such a combination of high winds and water makes cyclones a serious hazard for coastal areas in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Every year during the late summer months (July–September in the Northern Hemisphere and January–March in the Southern Hemisphere), cyclones strike regions as far apart as the Gulf Coast of North America, northwestern Australia, and eastern India and Bangladesh.

   Tropical cyclones are compact, circular storms, generally some 320 km in diameter, whose winds swirl around a central region of low atmospheric pressure. The winds are driven by this low-pressure core and by the rotation of Earth, which deflects the path of the wind through a phenomenon known as the Coriolis force. As a result, tropical cyclones rotate in a counterclockwise (or cyclonic) direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in a clockwise (or anticyclonic) direction in the Southern Hemisphere. 

11. What benefit can readers get by reading the text?

A. They understand the types of cyclones.

B. They understand the effects of tropical cyclones.

C. They understand the processes of how cyclone occurs.

D. They understand the suffering and casualties caused by cyclone.

E. They understand what people should do when cyclone attack. 

12. What makes cyclones a dangerous for coastal areas in tropical and subtropical areas?

A. The winds blow very high in the sky of the sea to the land.

B. The strong winds destroy coasts and subtropical areas.

C. Strong winds and heavy rains attck at the same time.

D. The heavy rains destruct big trees and cause floods.

E. The heavy rains cause high tidal waves on the sea.

13. It can be understood from the text that ….

A. cyclones occur when the seawater is clod

B. cyclones may happen in the southern hemisphere in august

C. tropical cyclones rotate in a clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere 

D. tropical cyclone only attack areas with low atmospheric pressure

E. cyclones may strike Australia in September

14. Which of the following best describes a phenomenon known as the Coriolis force?

A. deflection of the path of the wind

B. winds which blow very high above the sea

C. winds on a central region of low atmospheric pressure

D. an elevation of the sea surface up to 6 metres above normal levels

E. a counterclockwise direction of the wind in the Southern hemisphere

15. “Accompanying these strong winds are torrential rains and …” (Paragraph 1). The underlined word is closest in meaning with ….

A. short

B. heavy

C. destructive

D. harmful

E. violent 



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