Explanation Text dan Soal Essay Dengan Kunci Jawaban Untuk lampiran atau Appendix Skripsi Bahasa Inggris Part 3

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The following text is for questions number 16 to 20

   Adapting to a new culture can be difficult, especially when moving abroad. Most people who live in a foreign country for some time go through an adjustment period during which “Culture Shock” is experienced. Once culture shock is understood, its effects can be minimized dramatically. Expatriates usually experience the following phases while adjusting to their new country: honeymoon phase, negotiation phase, adjustment phase, reverse culture shock, and countering culture shock. 

   During the “Honeymoon Phase”, newly arrived expatriates are excited about their new surroundings and are eager to explore the new country. They are very positive about their relocation and the newness of the country.  

   During the negotiation phase which happens after a few weeks in a foreign country, expatriates usually experience homesickness. Simple day-to-day tasks, such as taking transportation, shopping or attending school meetings, can become a real challenge in a different environment. This is sometimes exacerbated by language barriers. These are challenges that locals may not be able to understand, and they may be seen by expatriates as being insensitive or unsympathetic people. 

   Six to 12 months after arriving in the host country, expatriates usually begin to grow accustomed to their new home and know what to expect from their surroundings. This is called the adjustment phase. Daily activities become routine and the customs of the host country are accepted as another way of living. At this stage expatriates are able to communicate more freely with locals.

16. What social phenomenon is explained in the passage?

A. How to go through the honeymoon phase.

B. Why expatriates usually experience culture shock.

C. How to deal with culture shock when living abroad.

D. Why people should learn cross cultural understanding.

E. The phases of culture shock experience by expatriates.

17. What is meant by “honeymoon phase” in paragraph 2?

A. The first few times when people live in other countries.

B. A period of harmony immediately following marriage.

C. The trip or vacation taken by a newly married couple.

D. A period when people love the new country where they live.

E. A period when people understood the culture of the new country.

18. According to the text, in what phase do usually expatriates experience homesickness?

A. Negotiation phase.

B. Honeymoon phase.

C. Adjustment phase.

D. Reverse culture shock.

E. Countering culture shock.

19. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

A. It is difficult for expatriates to accept the new country’s way of living.

B. Expatriates are not able to communicate well with their new neighbours.

C. After a year, expatriates usually have new hopes from their surroundings.

D. It takes about a year for people to learn to communicate with their neighbours.

E. It usually takes about a year for people to be able to adapt to the new culture.

 20. “Expatriates usually experience the following phases …” (Paragraph 1). The underlined word is closest in meaning with ….

A. natives 

B. colonials 

C. refugees 

D. emigrants

E. deportees

This text is for questions number 21 to 25

   To understand liquefaction, it is important to recognize the conditions that exist in a soil deposit before an earthquake. A soil deposit consists of an assemblage of individual soil particles. If we observe these particles, we will see that each particle is in contact with a number of neighboring particles. The weight of the overlying soil particles produces contact forces between the particles -these forces hold individual particles in place and give the soil its strength. 

   Liquefaction occurs when the structure of a loose, saturated sand breaks down due to some rapidly applied loading. As the structure breaks down, the loosely-packed individual soil particles attempt to move into a denser configuration. In an earthquake, however, there is not enough time for the water in the pores of the soil to be squeezed out. Instead, the water is "trapped" and prevents the soil particles from moving closer together. This is accompanied by an increase in water pressure which reduces the contact forces between the individual soil particles, thereby softening and weakening the soil deposit.

   Then, the contact forces are very small because of the high water pressure. In an extreme case, the porewater pressure may become so high that many of the soil particles lose contact with each other. In such cases, the soil will have very little strength, and will behave more like a liquid than a solid - hence, the name "liquefaction"

21. What does the first paragraph tell us mostly about?

A. The effects of an earthquake to the condition of soil. 

B. The condition of soil particles before an earthquake.

C. The processes of how liquefaction occur.

D. The contacts between soil particles. 

E. The definition of liquefaction.

22.What happens to the soil particles when an earthquake occurs?

A. They move to get closer together.

B. They cannot move into a denser configuration.

C. They act to squeeze out water in the pores of the soil.

D. Their contact forces to move closer increases.

E. They prevent the water to be squeezed out.

23.What can we conclude from the third paragraph?

A. The very high pressure of the water in an earthquake weaken the soil particles’ force so liquefaction happens.

B. The porewater pressure becomes very high in an earthquake because the soil particles do not move closer together.

C. When the soil particles loose contact with one another, an earthquake happens, causing the water pressure increase.

D. In an earthquake, the water pressure’s strength becomes very weak so the soil particles move closer together.

E. The term liquefaction comes from the condition of soil and water which are mixed together.

24. According to the text, what hold the soil from moving to other places?

A. The prewater pressure and individual soil particles.

B. The number of individual particles having contact.

C. The weight of the overlying soil particles.

D. The contact forces between soil particles.

E. The porewater pressure in the soil.

 25. “… saturated sand breaks down due to some rapidly applied loading”(Paragraph 2). The boldfaced words can be replaced with ….

A. Application which are loaded rapidly

B. Loading which are applied rapidly

C. Loading rapid application

D. Applied rapid loading

E. Rapidly loading application

This text is for questions number 26 to 30

  There are three broad stages of development: early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence.

   The first stage of development is the early childhood (birth to eight years). This is a time of tremendous growth across all areas of development. The dependent newborn grows into a young person who can take care of his or her own body and interact effectively with others. For these reasons, the primary developmental task of this stage is skill development. 

   Typically, three-year-old babies have mastered many skills, including sitting, walking, toilet training, using a spoon, scribbling, and sufficient hand-eye coordination to catch and throw a ball. Between three and five years of age, children continue to grow rapidly and begin to develop fine-motor skills. By age five most children demonstrate fairly good control of pencils, crayons, and scissors. 

   The second stage of development is the middle childhood (eight to twelve years). More recent theorists have recognized the importance of middle childhood for the development of cognitive skills, personality, motivation, and inter-personal relationships. During middle childhood children learn the values of their societies. Thus, the primary developmental task of middle childhood could be called integration, both in terms of development within the individual and of the individual within the social context.

   The next stage of development is the adolescence (twelve to eighteen years). The primary developmental task of adolescence is identity formation. Adolescence is an important period for cognitive development as well, as it marks a transition in the way in which individuals think and reason about problems and ideas. In early adolescence, individuals can classify and order objects, reverse processes, think logically about concrete objects, and consider more than one perspective at a time. However, at this level of development, adolescents benefit more from direct experiences than from abstract ideas and principles. As adolescents develop more complex cognitive skills, they gain the ability to solve more abstract and hypothetical problems.

26.Which of the following persons are most likely interested in reading the text?

A. University studentens majoring in Psychology.

B. Mothers with more than one child.

C. Language learners or lecturers.

D. High school students.

E. Doctors in general.

27. What is the primary developmental task in the middle childhood?

A. Learning motoric and cognitive skills integratedly.

B. Learning to know other society’s values.

C. Learning the values of their societies.

D. Learning to know about themselves.

E. Learning to know other people.

28.How can you compare paragraphs three and four?

A . Exeperienced by children- Learning to do sport

B. Experienced by babies - Learning school lessons

C. Development in the late childhood - Development in the early childhood

D. Development in the early chilhood - Development in the early adolescence

E. Development of motoric skills - Development of cognitive and social skills

29.What can we conclude from the last paragraph?

A. Teeanegrs are in the stage of late adolescence phase.

B. Teenagers learn to form their identity while developing their cognitive.

C. It is easier for teenagers to learn from abstract ideas and principles.

D. Teenagers are the same with adults in the way they think.

E. Teenagers develop more cognitive skills than adults.

30.“This is a time of tremendous growth across all areas of development” (Paragraph 2). The underlined word can be replaced with ….

A. wonderful

B. adequate

C. common

D. trivial

E. mutual



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