According to Syafi’i et al, (2007:2) states that there are five reading components that may help students to read carefully. They are:

1.   Main Idea

The main idea of a paragraph is what the author wants you know about the topic. Identifying the topic can generally help the reader to understand the main idea. The main idea makes a particular statement or emphasizes a special aspect of the topic. The main idea is usually expressed as complete thought, and the main idea usually indicates the author’s reason or purpose for writing and the message he or she wants to share with the reader. The main idea is not only in the beginning of the paragraph, but also in the middle and at the end of the paragraph. Questions about the main idea can be worded in many ways. For example, the following questions are all asking for the same information: (1) What is the main idea?, (2) What is the subject? (3) What is the topic? (4) What would be a good title?


2.   Factual of Information   

It requires scanning specific details. While reading, the reader must be able to recognize the factual or certain information in details such as person, reason, and comparison. The factual of information questions are preceded by WH-questions (where, why, what, who, how, etc).


3.   Locating Reference

In this item, you have been asked to find antecedent of a pronoun, an antecedent is a word or phrase to which a pronoun refers. The pronoun such as it, is, them, etc. and you has been asked to locate the reference word or phrase in the passage; the meaning of the sentence in the context of the passage will not change when you substitute the correct antecedent.


4.   Making Inference

The problem including in the test of English as a foreign language is making inferences. In this question type, you need to use the evidence you have to make an inference. It means that after you have evidence from reading a passage, you can make a logical conclusion based on the evidences; it can be about the author’s viewpoints.


5.   Supporting Sentences

Supporting sentences/supporting details should also help you from an impression that will reveal the topic. The support can take the form of examples, reasons, statistics, explanations, or simply relevant information. It is also support of main idea in order that all contents of text can be understood easily.


In addition, Brown (2004:206), there are some reading comprehension questions features that can be evaluated:

1)   Main ideas

2)   Expressions/idiom/phrase in context

3)   Inference (implied detail)

4)   Grammatical features

5)   Detail (scanning for a specifically stated detail)

6)   Excluding facts not written (unstated detail)

7)   Supporting ideas

8)   Vocabulary in context.

From the components of reading above, it can be known that the students will understand the paragraphs and they must master the components of reading first. They should master main idea and supporting ideas of the paragraph, identify inference and to tell the information. it also can be known that the components of reading are main idea, supporting ideas, inference, grammatical features, detail, excluding facts not written, vocabulary and expressions. These components should be learned by the students to help they understand the paragraphs.  


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