A.    Concept of Shared Reading Strategy

Shared reading is an interactive reading experience that occurs when students join in or share the reading of a big book or other enlarged text while guided and supported by a teacher or other experienced reader. Students observe an expert reading the text with fluency and expression. The text must be large enough for all the students to see clearly, so they can share in the reading of the text. It is through shared reading that the reading process and reading strategies that readers use are demonstrated. In Shared reading, children participate in reading, learn critical concepts of how print works, get the feel of learning and begin to perceive themselves as readers. The statement is supported by Bobby and Emily which explained shared reading is a time when the entire class gathers together to share a variety of literacy experience by reading and discussing a variety of texts. Many of the text are enlarged so that all the children can see the print and pictures anf thus talk more easily about them, (Moustafa, 2002:351)

Shared reading is the heart of comprehensive literacy.” It is the time during which teachers model through think-alouds what good readers do with text. Students have their own copy of the text, watch the teacher (or other fluent reader) read with fluency and expression, and are invited to read along. Shared reading builds a community of learners by helping students and teachers bond; students are partners in the learning process and see themselves as successful, (Allen, 2000).

Shared reading is exactly what it sounds like - It is a time for sharing a story and reading together! Shared reading in our classroom may include echo reading (students echoing the words after the teacher), choral reading (students reading at the same time as the teacher), or fill in the gap reading (teacher reading the majority of the text and then pausing for students to fill in and say rhyming words or other predictable words in the story).  All of these ways of reading are ways to encourage early reading enjoyment and success with a high level of teacher support.

During shared reading, students focus on both the pictures and the text to make predictions and to generate meaning. Most shared readings begin with a 'picture walk' in which the teacher guides students through a preview of the story, asking questions to elicit words and phrases that are used in the text. The book is then read to students and predictions are checked against the text of the story. The book is revisited among several days.  Further comprehension of the story takes place through questioning and discussion of each story (the author's choice of words and the illustrator's pictures), through acting out the story, making puppets and retelling boards, reviewing elements of the story (setting, characters, problem, solution),  and putting pictures of events of the story in order.

Once students are familiar with the story, we also look more closely at the text.  We mask certain letters and go on word hunts for small high frequency words such as I, the, to, etc. We also play with the sound of the text.  Students might be asked to listen carefully to the story and be asked to round up all the rhyming words they hear or words that begin with a certain sound.  We also frequently brainstorm other words that rhyme or begin with the same sound. They may be asked to determine the number of claps (syllables) in a word or the number of parts (sounds) in a word.  Sometimes, students will need to listen carefully to a word that is stretched out and put it together to figure out the word from the story, (Hubbard, 2010).

Shared Reading is a group reading lesson where all students have access to the text, can see the text and participate as readers, though they may be on different levels independently. The teacher models reading with fluency and invites the students to read along. In primary grades the students read along orally and in intermediate or middle grades the students may follow along silently or chime in chorally with the teacher on portions of the text. The texts chosen provide various instructional purposes and the teacher provides different levels of support as reading behaviors are modeled.


B.     Guiding Principles of Shared Reading

According to Stanley (2010), guiding princples of shared reading are as follows: 

1.   Shared Reading is a time to introduce new skills and strategies and to provide continued instruction through the use of a common text for each student.

2.   Shared Reading occurs daily for 10–20 minutes in a group setting.

3.   Shared Reading has a planned, specific instructional purpose with explicitly identified teaching points. This is Close Reading.

4.   Shared Reading instruction is differentiated according to the needs of the group.

5.   Shared Reading instruction uses a variety of text genres.

6.   Shared Reading instruction provides repeated experiences with the same text. This allows for new skills and strategies to be learned in a familiar text.

7.   Shared Reading instruction is designed to ensure student success.

8.   Shared Reading ensures that every child has access to a common text and that the students' eyes are on the text.

9.   Shared Reading encourages active student participation.

10. Shared Reading is enjoyable.


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