Procedure of Using Short Story

 Procedure of Using Short Story

Ghasemi & Hajizadeh (2011: 70) A systematic teaching strategy for the short story can include the following stages: 

a.       Pre-reading activities: to provide students with vocabulary exercises and cultural background

Pre-reading the vocabulary items can also be used to facilitate the introduction of the necessary cultural background and even refer to thematic features of the short story.  However, the real vocabulary task occurs when students try to use these words  in the textual context. A related and accompanying activity can be preparing a brief cloze-type exercise to encourage the  students to guess the meaning from the context.  In selecting and making the final vocabulary list, items which contain vital or emotional clues should be chosen.

b.      In-class oral reading: Comprehension work

In the second stage, students focus on smaller units of the text. At the third stage, the teacher may activate the students' initial response to the text and finally in the fourth stage the teacher can introduce the formal features (figurative language) of the text. During  the reading process, the teacher can help students prepare questions which can ultimately lead to the overall understanding of the text and thus facilitate the reading comprehension objectives. This list of questions can serve various purposes. It can stimulate a motivated reading at home, prior to the short story's live presentation in the classroom. 

At the same time, it aids the comprehension of the text.  It can also draw the students' attention to the major issues and ideas presented in the text.  It will also serve to prepare and assist the students' capacity for developing independent literary and critical skills. It is not, however, recommended that the teacher provide a plot summary or a statement of the theme since that should be reserved for the end result.  The teacher should allow the students to enjoy the pleasure of discovery and learn how to comprehend and appreciate literature.

c.       Textual analysis and group work: to improve reading comprehension and communicative skills

A useful activity at this stage is allowing time to the students to think about major issues of the text. To initiate this process, the teacher can give the text to the student, to read at home, using the prepared glossary, and requiring the students to comment on basic issues of the text. The teacher can stimulate their imaginative power by inviting the students to write one or two paragraphs on the main ideas of the text or relate these ideas to their own real life experiences or even imagine themselves in circumstances suggested in the text. When working with motivated students, even two readings of the short story at home prior to its oral presentation in the classroom can be achieved.

d.      Post-reading assignments: to establish the acquired knowledge and improve written skills.

Re-reading of the short story provides the students with an added advantage of establishing their previous knowledge about the text. To augment the  effect of this re-reading activity, short writing assignments can be given to students to enable them to articulate and further develop their thoughts and the thematic meanings they have  discovered through class discussions. Writing assignments based on the assigned short story enhance the students' involvement with the text and encourage them to think about, re-read, and further explore the text.

In addition Pardede (2011:21) point out the procedure in  teaching  short sory in reading as follows:

a.       Make students  lose  interest  in  the  activity.  This  activity helps  students  to  learn more vocabulary, and it also teaches them how to use a dictionary.

b.      help  students  to  understand  how  a  different  word/phrase  can  be  used  in  the same context.

c.       students practice using the words they already understand the meanings


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