Ferris & Hedgcock (2005) pointed out six stages in writing. They are pre-writing, drafting, responding, revising and editing, assessing, and post- writing. Related on the cluster technique in pre-writing stage, the researcher takes all of stages of writing as follows:

a.   Pre-writing.

Activating schemata is essential for a teacher to get students to know possible topics that they can develop into complete writing. Activating student’s   schemata can be done through pre-writing or planning activity. This stage is geared to stimulate ideas or thoughts for the students to get started.  Pre-writing also assists student writers in deciding what to write about so that they can organize their thoughts.

In this writing class, student have three main jobs such as (1) choosing a topic that interests the students, (2) narrowing the topic chosen that fits a writing task, and (3) collecting information  and developing ideas (Oshima & Hogue, 2006). Writing such a topic is still too large because it may include communication problems, working habits, social environment, and family life. Therefore, the student needs to narrow the topic. After that, she or he needs to develop the narrow topics into supporting details.

In conducting this, the students are required to apply strategies for generating ideas. There are six main techniques for generating ideas or brainstorming like journal writing, free writing, w-h questions, listing, clustering, and outlining. In other words, the main goals of prewriting are to help the students organize their ideas and to train the students to plan what they are going to write so that they can develop their ideas into completed writing. 

b.   Drafting.

In drafting phase, students need to focus on the fluency of writing, not on the grammatical accuracy. In this phase, the students are encouraged to develop their ideas into drafts without considering the grammatical accuracy first. As previously described, in the drafting, the grammatical accuracy will be emphasized during the revising stage. From this, drafts are not supposed to be perfect pertaining to grammatical accuracy in that this writing process class is a continuous process of discovery, and promotes the fluency of ideas so that a certain writing task that can be completed.

c.   Responding.

Responding to students writing by both the teacher and students themselves plays important roles in the successfulness of the writing process. Responding or giving feedback is primarily intended to see students first or second drafts. It is suggested that the usage of the transparency projector or LCD projectors connected with the computer so that the students can view students’ drafts. Briefly, a responding activity is to encourage students to participate actively in the class, get involved in an authentic communicative context, and develop critical skills. From here, involving students in providing feedback means empowering the students in thinking critically and participating actively in the class in which the goal is to boost the students to write better.

d.   Revising and editing.

In revising the drafts, the students review their work on the basis of the feed back given in the responding stage. They are in reexamine stage of what has been written to view how effectively they have conveyed the meanings to readers. It is important to note that revising does not simply relating looking at language errors but also state points to the global content and organization of ideas so that the writer s intent is made clearer to the reader.

e.   Assessing.

In this phase, the teacher assesses the students’ writings in which the goal is to see how well each student or each group has completed the work. In conducting this, the teacher has two options for scoring or grading systems either analytical on the basis of the specific aspects of writing ability or holistic based upon the global interpretation of the effectiveness of the compositions.

f.    Post-writing.

Post-writing is any classroom activity that the teacher and students can do with the completed writing. This may be in the form of displaying the finished writings on boards, sharing with one another, or reading aloud. The post-writing stage is a media of appreciating students’ writings. In other words, this is a reward for the students who done well and encourage students to write better.


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