Speech Act Theory

Speech Act Theory

Von, Dorge and Tubingen (2004:56) Speech act is one of the pragmatics studies. Speech act was first developed by Austin 1962 to explain an utterance with a natural language to get a feedback. Speech act is a phrase that consists of two words, speech and act.  Speech act is utterances that can be classified into three aspects i.e. locutionary act, illocutionary act, and perlocutionary act. Speech act can change the social reality not only describing a given reality.  Speech act is usually used for making statements, giving commands, asking questions, or making promises.

1.      Locutionary Act

Hisman (2000:5) The  locutionary act is the act  of saying something with a certain sense and reference or Locution is when ‘to’ say something is to do something. All constative utterances are locutionary by default as ‘to’ say something is ‘to say something’

Locutionary act in a  largo sense refers to all communication media, both sent and received. From the receiver’s point of view, it is not important at the beginning of the communication. There are verbal and non verbal communication acts within the locutionary acts. These acts are received as entity and as such they are subject to further interpretation. 

2.      Illocutionary Act

Bj√∂rgvinsson (2011: 8) The illocutionary act is the act performed in saying something, i.e. the act named and identified by the explicit performative verb. Illocution is when ‘in’ saying something an act is performed such as ‘in’ ordering someone one is ‘ordering someone’

Illocutionary act refers to the intention the act is performed with. It relates to various kinds of psychological modes that make the basis of communication as its teleological base. Both acts, locutionary and illocutionary are invoked by the sender/speaker.

3.      Perlocutionary Act

Oshika (2004: 37) The perlocutionary act is the act performed by, or as a consequence of, saying something. perlocutionary act means intention andit is thought to get a certain effect in other hand the perlocutionary act refers to the effects, consequences the given utterance evokes.

Perlocutionary act – refers to the receiver/ hearer whose interpretation of the message is manifested by a specific behaviour that indicates that the act is recognized and the extent of realization of satisfaction conditions. Perlocutionary act can thus be treated as an effect of the illocutionary act.


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