Concept of Direct Interaction Strategy

Concept of Direct Interaction Strategy

1.      Definition of Direct Interaction Strategy

            Carmin & Traub in miller (2004: 3) Direct Instruction is an approach to teaching. It is skills-oriented, and the teaching practices it implies are teacher-directed. It emphasizes the use of small-group, face-to-face instruction by teachers and aides using carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly

            Center on Innovation & Improvement (2008: 1) defines Direct instruction refers to instruction led by the teacher, as in “the teacher provided direct instruction in solving these problems.” Direct Instruction is an explicit, intensive instructional method that allows students of all abilities to become confident, capable learners

            According to Sutton and Sutton (1997), direct instruction is a teaching method that can be used successfully to teach almost any subject in which the student is required to master certain academic skills

            Direct instruction” is described as teacher-directed and fast-paced, using a highly structured presentation of antecedents and consequences (Gersten, Woodward, & Darch, 1986: 17). This meticulously developed, highly scripted method allows constant interactions between the student and the teacher. The responsibility for student learning rests directly with the teacher’s design and delivery of instruction.

            Valiathan. P (2009: 3) Direct Instruction (DI)  is used to describe learning material in which the teacher or expert transmits information directly to learners structuring learning time to reach a clearly defined set of objectives as efficiently as possible

2.      Procedure of Direct Interaction Strategy

Becker, Englemann, and Thomas in Sutton & Sutton (1997: 124) provide a model of the direct instruction procedure used to teach skills to students. The nine steps are as follows:

a)      Attention Signal The teacher secures the  child’s attention through a verbal cue.

b)      Task Stimulus The teacher presents (models)   the task to be performed.

c)      Stimulus-Direction The teacher instructs the  student to attend to the task by saying words like “Look here” or “Listen, please.” 

d)     Stimulus-Prompt The teacher maintains the student’s attention to one or more specific characteristics about the task by describing, expanding or illustrating.

e)      Response-Prompt The teacher tells or shows the student exactly what she expects the student to know.

f)       Response-Direction The teacher questions the student about the skill that was taught and instructs the student to respond is a specific way (e.g., say, write, point, etc.).

g)      Do-It Signal The teacher gives the student a  verbal (“Start, now.”) or physical (hand drop) signal as to when to perform the specific task. 

h)      Task Response The student performs the task as per the teacher’s instructions.

i)        Reinforcer The teacher corrects or rewards the student and provides a word of encouragement 

Related to the Center on Innovation & Improvement (2008: 2) the teachers used the following pattern:

a)      begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning.

b)      Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals.

c)      Present new material in small steps, providing for student practice after each step.

d)     Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations. Provide a high level of active practice for all students.

e)      Ask a large number of questions,

f)       check for student understanding, and obtain responses from all students.

g)      Guide students during initial practice.

h)      Provide systematic feedback and corrections.

i)        Provide explicit instruction and practice for seatwork exercises and monitor students during seatwork.

In Addition Valiathan. P (2009: 3) some factors that you should keep in mind to ensure that the learning material that you design using the DI approach is effective.

a)      Ensure that the concept or topic can be rendered well using the DI approach. 

b)      Create a clear structure for presenting information

c)      Help the learners know what is coming - provide an advance organizer - what they will be learning, and in what order.

d)      Use supplementary materials such as cases and stories, where possible


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