Kinds of Error Analysis

  1. Kinds of Error Analysis

Brown (2000: 224) states that there are two main sources of errors, namely, interlingual errors  and  intralingual  errors.  Interlingual  (Interference  )  Errors  are  those  errors  that  are traceable to first language interference. These errors are attributable to negative interlingual transfer. The term "interlingual  was first introduced by Selinker. He used this term to refer to the systematic knowledge of an L2 which is independent of both the learner's L1 and the target language

a.       Interlingual Errors

Based on Barzegar (2013: 323) Interlingual  errors  result  from  the  transfer  of  phonological,  morphological, grammatical, lexico-semantic, and stylistic elements of the  learners’s mother tongue to the learning of the target language.

There is no difference or contrast present between the two languages. The learner can simply transfer a sound, structure, or lexical item from the native language to the target language. It will explain some reasons why interlingual errors appear. It is divided into 5 levels.

1)      Level 1-Coalescence. Here, two items in the native language become coalesced into essentially one item in the target language.

2)      Level 2- Under differentiation. It refers to items in the native language which are absent in the target language. It is better if the learner avoids those items.

3)      Level 3-Reinterpretation. In this level, an item that exists in the native language is given a new shape or distribution.

4)      Level 4-Over differentiation. The learner must learn an entirely new item, which is little similar to the native language. It is something to do with the forms and meanings.

5)      Level 5-Split. The learner makes new distinction because one item in the native language becomes two or more in the target language. Split is part of coalescence.

b.      Intralingual  Errors

Hanna (1986: 78-79) Intralingual errors are those due to the language being learnt (target language), independent of the native language. Interlingual errors  are  also  called  transfer  or interference  errors. Intralingual  and  developmental  errors  are  due  to  the  difficulty  of the  second/target  language.  Intralingual  and  develop-mental factors include the following:

1)      Simplification:  Learners  often  choose  simple  forms  and constructions  instead  of  more  complex  ones.  An  example of  simplification  might  involve  the  use  of simple  present instead  of the present perfect continuous.

2)      Overgeneralization:  This  is  the  use  of  one  form  or  construction  in  one  context  and  extending  its  application  to other  contexts  where  it  should  not  apply. 

3)      Hypercorrection:  Sometimes  the  zealous  efforts of teachers in  correcting  their  students'  errors  induce  the  students  to make  errors  in  otherwise  correct  forms this  type  of error  "induced  errors." 

4)      Faulty  teaching:  Sometimes  it  happens  that learners' errors are  teacher-induced  ones,  i.e.,  caused  by  the  teacher,  teach-ing  materials,  or  the  order  of  presentation.  This  factor  is closely  related  to  hypercorrection  above.  Also, it is  interesting  to  note  that  some  teachers  are  even  influenced  by  their pupils' errors in  the course of long teaching.

5)      Fossilization:  Some  errors,  specially  errors  in  pronunciation,  persist  for  long  periods  and  become  quite  difficult  to get  rid  of. 

6)      Avoidance:  Some  syntactic  structures  are  difficult  to produce  by  some  learners.  Consequently,  these  learners  Second Language Learning Errors avoid  these  structures  and  use  instead  simpler  structures. Arab  ESL  learners  avoid  the  passive  voice  while  Japanese learners avoid relativization in English.

7)      Inadequate  learning:  This  is  mainly  caused  by  ignorance  of rule  restrictions  or  under differentiation  and  incomplete learning.  An  example  is  omission  of the third person singular s as  in:  He  want.

8)      False  concepts  hypothesized:  Many  learners'  errors  can be  attributed to wrong  hypotheses formed  by  these learners about  the  target  language.  For  example,  some  learners think  that  is  is  the  marker  of the  present  tense.  So,  they produce:  He  is  talk  to  the  teacher.  Similarly,  they  think that  was  is  the  past  tense  marker.  Hence  they  say:  It was happened last night.


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