Concept of Grammatical Error

  1. Concept of Grammatical Error

Teaching of grammar is a much debated topic in language learning. Different expert have given different opinion about teaching of grammar. According some, the  language  cannot  be  learnt  without  studying  of  grammar  of  the  language. Nevertheless, some people say that the students who study grammar are often able to solve grammar exercise, but do not write correct speech (Patel and Jain, 2008: 141).

In  Indonesia,  traditional  grammar  can  still  be  found  in  some  language classrooms.  The  teaching  of  grammar  tends  to  use  repetitions  and  rote  drills. These activities can make the students get bored easily and uninteresting with the grammar  teaching.  This  does  not  mean  that  there  is  no  place  for  drills,  but  drills should  be  used  in  a  meaningful  and  purposeful  way  (Larsen-Freeman,  1991  in Puspitasari, 2011: 174). Furthermore, teachers have to find any techniques to keep children to concentrate to the teaching, to make them enjoy the lesson and to have fun and amusement.

Based on Mohaghegh et. al (2011: 877) the most  frequent  types  of  errors  he  found  were  tenses, articles,  prepositions,  word  order,  morphology,  syntax, and  lexis. In addition Andrews et. al (2004: 8) Grammar refers, as far as the present project is concerned, to written sentence and text grammars.  It includes the study of syntax (rules governing word order), clause and phrase structure, and the classification of parts of speech (e.g. noun, verb, etc.), and issues regarding the cohesion and coherence of whole texts.  It can be both descriptive, in that it describes the existing patterns of sentences and texts; and, in sentence terms, also generative or transformative, in that rules can be defined which can generate grammatically acceptable sentences (the transformation being from basic deep structural rules, through to actual sentences).

The  examples  of  the  grammatical  errors  that  are  found  in  the  students’ writing:

a.       Sentence Pattern

Subject is the word that tells you who or what performed the action of the verb. Almost all English sentences contain a subject (S) and a verb (V). The  verb may or may  not be followed by an object (O). This means that the Subject comes before the Verb, which comes before the Object.

Verb  is  a  word  or  phrase  that  describes  an  action,  condition  or experience. Verbs that are not followed by an object are called “intransitive verbs.”  Common  intransitive  verbs:  agree,  arrive,  come,  cry,  exist,  go, happen, live, occur, rain, rise, sleep, stay, walk. Verbs that are followed by an object are called “transitive verb.” Common transitive  verbs: build, cut, find, like,  make,  need,  send,  use,  want.  Some  verbs  can  be  either  intransitive  or transitive. Transitive; A student studied. Intransitive; A student studied books.  Subjects  and  objects  of  verbs  are  nouns  (or  pronouns).  Examples  of nouns: person, place, thing, John)

b.      Tense

Tense  in  English  identifies  when  an  event  happens  or  describes  a state. The simple past indicates that an activity or situation began an ended at a  particular  time  in  the  past.  We  use  past  tense  to  describe  and  narrate  an event or situation that occurred in the past and is over. For example: “When I was twelve, I broke my leg. I slipped on the playground on a cold winter morning and fell. The bone near my ankle snapped with a loud “pop!” Even  my  friends  heard  it.  The  teachers  called  my  parents,  who  came quickly. . . . “

c.       Pronoun

A  pronoun  is  a  word  that  is  used  in  the  place  of  a  noun  or  noun phrase. Usually when a noun or noun phrase has been used once, a pronoun is used to avoid repetition of the same noun or noun phrase. Personal pronouns.

Personal pronouns are words such as:  First  person  pronouns,  example  words  that  represent  or  include  the speaker or writer. Singular    : I, me, my, mine and Plural    : we, us, our, ours. Second  person  pronouns,  example  words  that  represent  the  person  or people who is/are being addressed. Singular    : you, your, yours and Plural    : you, your, yours. Third person pronouns, example words that represent people or things other than the speaker/writer and the listener/reader. Singular    : he, him, his, she, her, it, its Plural    : they, them, their, theirs

d.      Preposition

Preposition  have been called the biggest little words in English. They are usually quite short and significant  looking, but they  have very  important functions. Prepositions are always followed by nouns (or pronouns). They are connective  words  that  show  the  relationship  between  the  nouns  following them  and  one  of  the  basic  sentence  element:  subject,  verb,  object,  or compliment.  They  usually  indicate  relationships,  such  as  position,  place, direction  time,  manner,  agent,  possession,  and  condition,  between  their objects and other parts of the sentence.

e.       Punctuation and Spelling

Punctuation  is  the  use  of  special  marks  that  you  add  to  writing  to separate phrases and sentences, to show that something is a question, etc. While Spelling  words  in  English  can  be  difficult  for  learners  because sometimes  a  word  is  very  similar  to  a  word  in  their  own  language  but  is not  spelled  the  same


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