Essential Components of Paragraph Writing

Essential Components of Paragraph Writing

Since writing is the complex activity, there some essential components should be a consideration in order to make a good paragraph. According to  Svobodova et al. (2000:13) there are some characteristics as a consideration to make a good paragraph such as unity, coherence and capitalization and punctuation. There are some components that should be considered to compose a good writing namely unity, coherence, vocabulary and grammar.


Unity is a consideration in a paragraph which represent that a paragraph talks about one main idea; in addition, all supporting sentences must explain or prove the main idea which is stated in topic sentence. Savage and Mayer (2005:9) state that a paragraph has unity when all the sentences support one single idea. If there are sentences in the paragraph that are not directly related to main idea, the paragraph is considered to have no unity. If there are any irrelevant ideas in your paragraph, they must be omitted. Unity means that the sentences in a paragraph are related to major idea or topic sentence which is supported by facts, details or illustrations of that particular idea on the topic sentence.


            The meaning of coherence is the feeling that a text hangs together, that it makes sense, and is not just a jumble of sentences. According to Galko (2001:51) that coherence paragraph flows from sentence to sentence, it means that the sentences in the paragraph are linked to each other logically. Savage and Shafiei, (2007:16) state that the coherence means that supporting details are organized; thus, that information which goes together appears together.

            Based on the previous explanation above, it is concluded that all details in a paragraph must explain one idea. If there is an idea that is not match with the other ideas, it means that the paragraph does not coherent. In order to have coherence in writing, the movement from one sentence to the next must be logical and smooth. A paragraph is clearly considered to be coherent and easy to understand when it uses the correct transition words and conjunctions.


One should be mastered in composing a good writing specially to write a good paragraph is vocabulary which is one of Language components. Richards and Schmidt (2002:580) state that vocabulary is a set of lexemes, including single words, compound words and idioms. It is the most important thing in composing a good paragraph because it can determine whether a paragraph is understandable or not; furthermore, the variety of vocabularies consider that a paragraph is interesting to read. Bohlke et al. (2003:x) views that a rich vocabulary is both a great asset and a great joy. When you have an extensive vocabulary, you can provide precise vivid description in your paragraph; you can speak more fluently and with more confident; you can understand more of what you read and you can read more sophisticated text. In order to make a paragraph can be easy to understand, the writers have to be able to choose the effective and an appropriate understandable choice of vocabulary to be put in their paragraph.

In composing a paragraph, make sure that you have enough vocabulary for each of the common categories namely evaluation, consequence and cause reason, modifiers, connectors and grouping nouns (Duigu, 2002:39). As stated by Taylor (2009:220) a careful patterning of your vocabulary is one of the things which brings the most satisfaction in the act of writing in this case, paragraph writing; furthermore, if you wish to repeat a word in your paragraph, it is better to use the synonym of that word rather than using the same word.


Harmer (2007:1) states that grammar is the study and the practice of the rules in a language in which words change their forms and are combined into sentences. There are two basic components in this definition, the first is the rules of grammar and the second one is the practice of the rules. The rules of grammar are about how the words change and how they are put together into sentence. The practice of grammar is how the writers use the grammar correctly to make a good sentence. In a paragraph, the sentences that are arranged grammatically will make the paragraph is easy to understand and to avoid the misunderstanding of the readers. According to Downing and Locke (2006:239) when the readers read the paragraph, grammar helps them to interpret the messages of what they read.

According to Willis (2003:28) that grammar is everything about the sentence. Duigu (2002:37) states that the field of grammar of a writing includes paragraph writing are the tenses, the use of the passive, correct use of parts of speech and correct clause structure. We have to be able to use the right fields of grammar to make our paragraph has good structure and the readers are easily understand the content of our paragraph. As quoted from Anderson and Anderson (1998:4)  that the grammar in the level of paragraph are examine the processes and features which involves looking at the purpose of the paragraph, the structures that are used in the paragraph and how the paragraph is clearly organized.


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