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Micro Skill and Macro Skill of Speaking

 Micro Skill and Macro Skill of Speaking

Brown (2007) separates speaking into micro and macro skills. Micro skills refer to producing smaller chunks of language including phonemes, morphemes, words, collocations, and phrasal units. While macro skills focus on the larger elements such as fluency, discourse, function, style, cohesion, nonverbal communication, and strategic options.

1)      List of Micro Skills

a)      Produce differences among English phonemes and allophonic variants.

b)      Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonation contours.

c)      Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.

d)     Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.

e)      Monitor one’s own oral production and use various strategic devices - pauses, fillers, self -corrections, backtracking – to enhance the clarity of the message.

f)       Produce speech in natural constituents: in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breathe groups, and sentence constituents.

2)      List of Macro Skills

a)      Use appropriate styles, registers, implicate, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversation rules, floor keeping, and floor yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.

b)      Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues appropriate with verbal language.

Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well interlocutors understand.


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