Puskás (2016: 10) explanin the Teaching children is a very broad term since ‘child’ and ‘childhood’ cannot be fixed into strict age brackets. However, it is crucial to clarify what we mean by the concept of ‘young learners’ in terms of English language teaching. Young learners have been defined by a variety of scholars and researchers, focusing mainly on children of pre-school and primary school ages. Even within this definition there are differences from country to country.

Puskás divides young learners into three groups. The first is children who start pre-school at about the age of three, the second is the group of children who start primary school at around the age of 5-7 and finish primary school 11 or 12, although in some countries it happens at around the age of 13 or 14. Pinter calls children from the age of 13 onwards ‘early adolescents’1. In Slovakia, children usually start their primary school education at the age of 6 or 7 and finish at around the age of 15, whereas primary schooling is often divided into lower primary and upper primary years. It means that at the age of 13 children are still in their primary school years and do not change to secondary or high school yet. Of course, the variation in school types and ages shows a complex picture across different countries.

Esteve (2016: 17) Young learners have plenty of opportunities to explore and grasp new vocabulary during their English lessons. Vocabulary can be taught using different techniques. It can be introduced by the teacher, or through games, songs, stories and through other materials that are available in the classes. Vocabulary can also be learnt through class interaction. It can be from teacher to students or vice versa and students to students. Through interaction, plenty of this vocabulary is automatically absorbed. It is useful to make a distinction between direct and indirect vocabulary learning. In direct vocabulary learning the learners do exercises and activities that focus their attention on vocabulary. However, in indirect vocabulary learning the learners’ attention is focused on some other features, usually the message that is conveyed by a speaker or writer.


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