According to the (Wegener. 2005) that Peer Review is the evaluation of creative work or performance by other people in the same field in order to maintain or enhance the quality of the work or performance in that field.

Rollinson, (2005: 23) Peer Review: a process whereby the students use each other as sources of feedback,  “in such a way that they assume roles and responsibilities normally taken by a formally trained teacher in  commenting  on  and  critiquing  each  other’s  drafts  in  both  written  and  oral  formats  in  the process of writing”

Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs. Peer review is a simple process, but requires planning to be successful. Peer review can occur in a single class period or as an extended assignment. To effectively plan, consider the length and type of written assignment to use the number of students involved, mobility constraints in the classroom, and the amount of time available. In advance, determine how you will evaluate the peer review activity (Hill, 2005).

Peer review refers to the many ways in which students can share their creative work with peers for constructive feedback and then use this feedback to revise and improve their work, (Hoston, 2010). Still in Horton states that for the writing process, revision is as important as drafting, but students often feel they cannot let go of their original words. By keeping an audience in mind and participating in focused peer review interactions, students can offer productive feedback, accept constructive criticism, and master revision.

Based on the definition above, the writer concludes that Peer Review is a strategy that used to correct the students’ writing result among by their peers and the students can learn to reflect on their own work, self-edit, listen to their peers, and assist others with constructive feedback.

a.   The Ways to Use Peer Review Strategy

According to the Horton article the Peer review can be used for different class projects in a variety of ways namely:

1)   Teach students to use these three steps to give peer feedback: Compliments, Suggestions, and Corrections. Explain that starting with something positive makes the other person feel encouraged. You can also use to walk through the feedback process with your students.

2)   Provide students with sentence starter templates, such as, “My favorite part was _________ because __________,” to guide students in offering different types of feedback. After they start with something positive, have students point out areas that could be improved in terms of content, style, voice, and clarity by using another sentence starter (“A suggestion I can offer for improvement is ___________.”). The peer editor can mark spelling and grammar errors directly on the piece of writing.

3)   Teach students what constructive feedback means (providing feedback about areas that need improvement without criticizing the person). Feedback should be done in an analytical, kind way. Model this for students and ask them to try it. Show examples of vague feedback (“This should be more interesting.”) and clear feedback (“A description of the main character would help me to imagine him/her better.”), and have students point out which kind of feedback is most useful. offers general advice on how to listen to and receive feedback, as well as how to give it.

4)   For younger students, explain that you need helpers, so you will show them how to be writing teachers for each other. Model peer review by reading a student’s piece aloud, then have him/her leave the room while you discuss with the rest of the class what questions you will ask to elicit more detail. Have the student return, and ask those questions. Model active listening by repeating what the student says in different words. For very young students, encourage them to share personal stories with the class through drawings before gradually writing their stories.

5)   Create a chart and display it in the classroom so students can see the important steps of peer editing. For example, the steps might include: 1. Read the piece, 2. Say what you like about it, 3. Ask what the main idea is, 4. Listen, 5. Say “Add that, please” when you hear a good detail. For pre-writers, “Add that, please” might mean adding a detail to a picture. Make the chart gradually longer for subsequent sessions, and invite students to add dialogue to it based on what worked for them.

6)   Incorporate ways in which students will review each other’s work when you plan projects. Take note of which students work well together during peer review sessions for future pairings. Consider having two peer review sessions for the same project to encourage more thought and several rounds of revision.

7)   Have students review and comment on each other’s work using a piece of paper.

8)   Have students write a class book, then take turns bringing it home to read. Encourage them to discuss the writing process with their parents or guardians and explain how they offered constructive feedback to help their peers.

b.   What should the peers do?

All writers, even professional writers, need others to read and comment on their writing. As writers, we are often too close to our work to spot problems a helpful reader can point out. In order to benefit from the insight of such a reader, follow these strategies (Hoston, 2010):

1.   Come to the workshop with your best possible draft.

2.   Alert your reader to any concerns you have before they begin to read.

3.   Ask questions and take notes as you are discussing your writing.

4.   Try not to get defensive. Be grateful for your readers time and attention.

5.   At the same time, don’t feel obligated to take all of your readers advice. Remember that readers’ opinions may differ and that you are ultimately responsible for your paper.

Remember that your role as a writer is only part of your workshop contribution. The above strategies are most effective when your paper is reviewed by a helpful reader. You have an opportunity to be that kind of reader for others by observing the following guidelines as you review their writing:

1.   Ask the writer what you can be looking for as you read their essay.

2.   Read the writers essay carefully.

3.   Respond as a reader, pointing out where things don’t make sense, read smoothly, etc.

4.   Be positive. Point out strengths as well as weaknesses, and be sensitive in how you phrase your criticism (Could you clarify this section? rather than Your organization is a message)

5.   Be honest. Don’t say something works when it doesn’t. You are not helping the writer if you avoid mentioning a problem.

6.   Be specific. Rather than simply saying a paragraph is confusing for example, try to point to a specific phrase that confuses you and, if possible, explain why that phrase is problematic.

7.   Focus on one or two major areas for revision.


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