Concept and Definition Direct Speech Act

 Concept and Definition Direct Speech Act

The direct speech acts generally is  the  syntactic  form  of  the  utterance  reflects  the  direct illocutionary  act.    This  utterance  is  said  directly  without  third person.  The  form  is  used  imperative  sentence  usually.  An example, a mother asked to the sister,” Sweep the floor, dear!” from the sentence  was clear  that  the mother asked  or command to her child to sweep the floor.

Al-Hindawi1, Al-Masu’di1 & Mirza (2013: 30) direct speech act is one where the structure matches the function, that is, a declarative, an interrogative, an imperative, and an exclamative issue a statement, a question, an order, and an exclamation respectively, syntactically speaking. In other words, direct speech acts are one-illocutionary force utterances,

Lafi (2001:277) Direct speech acts are those expressed by the constructions specifically designed for those acts. For example, an interrogative construction is meant to ask a question, a declarative construction is designed to make a statement, and an imperative construction is reserved for issuing orders.

Krifka (2004:21) The direct speech is a complete shift of context; the pronouns referring to speaker and addressee now interpreted with reference to the reported speech situation. The minimal requirement that the sentence Mary said “...” is true is that Mary performed a speech act A with respect to a common ground that had the same effects on the commitment states of the speaker Mary and the other interlocutors present as the per-forming the quoted speech act with the locutionary act  “...” would have had. This allows for the possibility that what Mary actually said differs from “...” in certain aspects of its wording.

According to Jucker and Taavitsainen (2008), directive speech acts contain a verb, an object and a requested task performed by the speaker and the hearer. Directive speech acts is an utterance of the speaker to make the hearer do something for the speaker. The directive speech acts are divided into 20 sub categories: 1) Advising, 2) admonishing, 3) asking, 4) begging, 5) challenging, 6) daring, 7) demanding, 8) dismissing, 9) excusing, 10) forbidding, 11) instructing, 12) inviting, 13) ordering, 14) permitting, 15) recommending, 16) requesting, 17) requiring, 18) suggesting, 19) urging and 20) warning. The example of directive speech act:  “Don’t go too far!” This is the example of directive speech acts of forbidding.


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