A.    Background of the Problem

The teaching of English covers four skills, namely reading, writing, speaking and listening (Powers - ‎2010:5). Listening and reading are said to be receptive, while speaking and writing are said to be productive. Speaking in foreign language is very complex task because the speaker has to understand the nature of what appears to be involved.  For  example,  learners need  linguistic  competence  to  be  able  to  use  the  language  appropriately  to  give context.  It  means  that  learners  must  also  acquire  knowledge  of  how  the  native speaker uses the language in the context of structured interpersonal  exchange, in which many factors interact.

English teaching and learning has the goal of focusing students so that they are able to use English for communication and as a tool for furthering their studies. In the process of teaching and learning, the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) are simultaneously performed. Normally, learners in an EFL context do not use the language in authentic situations. They possess inability in communicating appropriately and correctly. In foreign language teaching and learning, ability to speak is the most essential skill since it is the basic for communication and it is the most difficult skill. Speaking English is the most difficult for learners (Oradee 2012:533).

Learning speaking is one important matter in learning language but it is not a simple work to do. Basically, the students only speak English but they do not pay attention to the sentence structure and correct pronunciation. Besides, the students still have limited vocabulary, due to they are seldom practice their English language. Some of the students are shy to have an opportunity in speaking, they prefer to be silent in speaking activity. The researcher has found similar case media at teaching and learning process one of them is picture, audio visual and magazine.

Textbook  serves  as  a  media  that  helps  teachers  in  arranging  a  teaching  and learning  process.  Therefore  preparing  the  teaching  materials  for  each  class  will  not consume lots of time. Besides, Cunningsworth (1995:7) mention that the uses of textbook are considered helpful because most of goals and aims have already been prepared in set of practices based on what students need to learn. Textbook not only beneficial for teachers in terms of helping them to prepare the  materials,  and  achieve  the  teaching  aims  and  objectives  but  also  textbook  helps students to achieve their learning needs. It sounds to be logical answers to overcome the problems of creating good and enhancing teaching atmosphere in the classroom. With  well  prepared  materials  and  test  provided  by  the  textbook,  combined  with teacher flexibility in teaching using the textbook in the class, a good compromise can be reached.

Textbook is one of the learning materials which are commonly used. It is kind of printed materials which have an important part in teaching and learning process.  According  to Tomlinson  (1999:2), textbook is a main learning material which is usually used by teacher and students.According to Richard (2001:249), the advantages        of textbook  are (1) providing structure  and a syllabus for a program; (2) helping standardized  instruction; (3) maintaining quality; (4) providing a variety of learning resources; (5) being efficient; (6)  providing effective language models and input; (7) training teachers; and (8) being visually appealing.

Lee & Chang (2008: 145) explain a textbook is an important means of satisfying the range of needs that emerge from the classroom and textbooks are a universal element in English language teaching. Dealing with a quality of a textbook,  in 2008 Department of National Education publishes some BSE (BukuSekolahElektronik) English textbooks. One of  them is an English textbook for Eight  Graders of Junior High School entitled “English in Focus” which is  not only used by public schools but also private schools.

In the other hand, textbook is getting a great role in education related with the implementation of the curriculum (Permendikbud 2013). In Englisheducation has inevitablybeen influenced by the growing prevalence of communicative language teaching. This pervasive teaching approach uses syllabi and textbooksdesignedwithamain focuson communication as opposed to linguistic form. Nevertheless,thefactremains that  learners do not have enough opportunities to practice speaking English in daily life  because of the EFL situation in which Indonesian learners.     

Richards ( 2008:1)  The  effectiveness  of  a  textbook  in  arranging  aims  and  goals,  and  preparing teaching materials become a good consideration before deciding to use the textbook in the classroom. An inappropriate textbook could possibly make the class dull with uninteresting exercise or too expensive for students or even does not match with  the learner’s rights in achieving their needs in learning.

Those  reasons  make  the  selection  of  textbook  used  by  teachers  become relatively  crucial.  The  textbook  has  to  fit  with  the  current  curriculum,  schools syllabus  along  with  student’s  needs  and  also  the  aims  and  goals  of  teaching. Therefore,  teachers  have  to  choose  the  appropriate  and  ideal  textbook  as  beneficial for both students and teacher as possible. However on a particular occasion, learners’ needs sometimes become the pin point for the teachers to determine a textbook (Rajakumar. P 2006:4).

Researchers in this study effort to check whether textbooks used in the schools in the presentation of contents is in accordance with the curriculum or not. There are many types of books that can be used for learning, one of which is the book "English in focus" so the researchers wanted to examine the textbooks.

B.     Limitation of the Problem and Research Questions Formulations

1.      Limitation of the Problem

            To clarify the problem in order to conduct research more effectively and focused, it is necessary to limit the problems. The limitation of problems in analysis of Speaking Activities in English Textbook includes:

a.       The  English  textbook  that  is  analyze is  the  English  textbook  with  the  title  of English in Focus

b.      The  writer  analyzes  whether  the  content  of English  textbook “English in Focus” compatible or  not  with  the  current  curriculum  and  the  presentation  of the  textbook,  and  more  focused  in  analyzing  the  material  available  of  the textbook in Speaking

2.      Research Questions Formulations

           Based on background of the study above, the research problems can be formulated as follows:

a.      How is the presentation of the content in textbook entitle “English in Focus” in Speaking Activities in English Textbook.

b.      How is the presentation of contents in "English in focus" in accordance or not with the curriculum. 

C.    Objectives of the Reearch

             Considering the background and the formulation of the problems, the writer is aimed at:

1.      To know the presentation of the content in textbook entitle “English in Focus” in Speaking Activities in English Textbook.

2.      To know whether the presentation of contents in "English in focus" is in accordance or not with the curriculum.

D.    Advantages of the Research

It is important to formulate what becomes the benefit for this research and how far it would contribute to the development of science (Arikunto, 1997). This research is conducted in order that it gives theoretical and practical benefits.

1.      For students

Can provide information to students about the presentation the content of the textbook.

2.      For Teachers

As consideration for teachers to rectifying concepts in textbooks used in the learning process as stipulated in the textbook content and motivate teachers to more carefully select the appropriate textbooks, relevant and synchronized with the applicable curriculum, especially regarding presentation of contents in textbooks.

3.      For the Writer

research results can provide information to students that many textbooks a variety so that we as a prospective teacher must be able to analyze presentation of the contents of textbooks. 

E.     Definition of Terms

            In order to avoid unnecessary miss understanding, some terms use in this research are clarified as follows:

1.      Analysis

According to Babbie (2008), analysis means to study or examine something carefully in a methodical way especially in this study of human communications. Among the forms suitable for study are books, magazines, web pages, poems, newspapers, songs, paintings, speeches, letters, e-mail messages, bulletin board postings on the Internet, laws, and constitutions, as well as any components or collections thereof (p. 350).

2.      Speaking

According to Mead and Rubin (in Panorama, 2014:2) said “Speaking has many purposes; they are to inform, to persuade, and to solve problem”. speaking ability is ability or skillto convey our ideas, opinions or message orally. Speaking ability is always used in everyday life, it is the only one way when we want to communicate to each other orally. Some people think that speaking ability in foreign language is difficult because the target language is different with mother language. In order to have a good ability in speaking we must always practice it.

3.      Textbook

According to Tomlinson   (1999:2), textbook is   a main learning material which is usually used by teacher and students. There are so many textbooks sold in bookstores, and most of them are interesting. It makes choosing the right textbook a challenging task. We need to evaluate whether the textbooks we choose are good  or not, are relevant to  the newest curriculum or not, and provide the best materials for appropriate integrated skills or not.


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