Concept of Speaking

 Concept of Speaking

1.      Definition of Speaking

Thornbury and Slade, (2006:17)speaking  defined  as  a  social,  multi-sensory  speech  event,  whose  topic  is  unpredictable.  Speaking  is  social,  in  the sense that it establishes rapport and mutual agreement, maintains and modifies social identity, and involves interpersonal skills. This social  element  is  expressed  through  wishes,  feelings,  attitudes, opinions  and  judgments,  which  can  clash  with  the  formal  nature  of  the classroom when teaching speaking.

Gumperz  (1999),  speaking  is  cooperatively  constructed which is based on contributions, assumptions, expectations, and interpretations of the participants‘ utterance.

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information (Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997 in Florez 1999)

Thornbury, (2005: 9)  which  Speaking  is  also  a  multi-sensory  activity  because  it  involves paralinguistic  features  such  as  eye-contact,  facial  expressions,  body  language, tempo, pauses, voice quality changes, and pitch variation affect  conversational  flow.  It seems  that  culture  is  integral  in  howspeaking  is  constructed  which  has  implications  for  how  English  speaking  is taught and learned.

2.      Kinds of Speaking

Speaking is commonly divided in two kinds namely speaking competency and speaking performance. In this research will explain the further.

a.       Speaking competency           

Martin H Manser (2011:12) state that competency is having ability, skill and knowledge to do something. Then through this basic definition, we also may conclude that speaking competency is the ability of someone to speak in combining their inclusive skill and how to delivered competence is what one knows.                                                                                                                                 

b.      Speaking performance

Martin H Manser in Muliadi R (2011:12) state that performance is the person’s process or manner of a play. Therefore we may conclude that speaking performance is the way of one’s manner is speaking with access their opinion with accuracy


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