Types of Grammatical Error

  1. Types of Grammatical Error

Harmer, Jeremy. (2007: 99) error may be viewed as being either global or local error. These errors are divided into two kinds of error:

a.       Global errors

Global  errors  are  errors  that  affect  overall  sentence  organization which  possibly  influence  the  flow  of  communication.  For  example  the wrong order of major constituents, “English language use many people.” The sentence should be, “Many people use English language.”

b.      Local errors

Local  errors  are  errors  that  affect  one  element  or  constituent  in  a sentence which usually do not break the flow of communication.  These errors  include  errors  in  noun  and  verb  inflections,  articles,  and auxiliaries. For example, “Why you like him?” The listeners of the utterance  will  still  understand  the  speaker’s  message  although  the sentence  does  not  contain  auxiliary.  In  addition,  in  classifying  the student‟s errors in writing descriptive paragraph the writer would like to use  Corder  theory.  He  stated  five  types  error  which  will  be  explained below.  The types of errors are error of omission, error of addition, error of selection, error of ordering.

1)      Error of Ommision

Error  of  omission  is  the  absence  of  an  item  that  should  appear. “Errors of omission where some element is omitted which should be present.”The  learner  omits  the  item  that  should  appear  in  the  good utterance. “Omission has two types of morphemes that are omitted more than others. They are content morphemes and grammatical morphemes.”Content morphemes are morphemes that have meaning like nouns, verbs, adjectives,  adverbs.  Grammatical  morphemes  are  little  words  that  have minor  play  in  sentences  like  noun  and  verb  inflections,  articles, auxiliaries,  and  preposition. Example:  Angelina  is  an  actress.  From  the explanation  and  example  above,  the  word  Angelina  and  actress  are content  morphemes  because  Angelina  and  actress  is  noun  and  has  a mayor  meaning.  The  words  is  and  an  are  grammatical  morphemes because  they  are  verb  auxiliaries  and  article,  and  they  are  also  play  a minor meaning in that sentence.

Omit grammatical morphemes are more frequently than content words. It is caused by the grammatical morphemes are more complex, for example in using tenses, the learner should be aware of the  addition of the ending of the verb (-ed,-ing,-s) correctly. Omit content morphemes are  typically  made  by  the  learner  in  the  early  stage.  It  happens  because the  learner  still  has  limitation  of  the  vocabulary  which  is  used  in  the sentences. 

2)      Error of Addition

Addition is the opposite of omission. Addition is the presence of an item  that  must  not  appear  in  well-formed  utterences. In  addition,  the learners  add  the  utterance  which  is  not  needed  in  a  sentence,  or  the learners add some unnecessary element. For example: She didn’t studied yesterday.  From  the  example  above,  the  learner  want  to  tell  that  she didn’t study yesterday.  She  knows  that  to  tell  the  past  event,  she  has  to use the past verb, but she puts two items for the same features; didn’t and studied. 

3)      Error of Selection

This  error  is  made  by  the  learner  where  the  learner  chooses  the wrong items in the right place. Different from omission where the items are  not  supplied  at  all,  in  errors  of  selection,  the  learner  supplies something  even  though  that  is  incorrect.  For  example;  I  buyed  a  novel two days ago. A past tense marker is put by the learner, but it is incorrect. 

4)      Error of Ordering

Error of ordering is the error where the items presented are correct but wrongly sequences. For example, I have pen blue. From the example above,  the  items  are correct, but the writer doesn’t put the items in the appropriate order.


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