The Definition of Elicitation Technique

 The Definition of Elicitation Technique

English learning in the classroom occurs through meaningful interaction that involves teacher and students. The interaction can be between teacher and students or the interaction between student and student. Teaching learning process will not conduct if there is no interaction between teacher and students. The interaction between teacher and students occur when the teacher explain the material and the student have to give their responses.

During teaching learning process, teacher and students are expected to participate actively in the classroom especially the students. The students’ participation will affect their understanding toward the material. The students who are active in the classroom, the students will understand the material well than the students who just listen the teacher explanation. Because, when the student active in the classroom and they can share their opinion about the material, that students will remember that material. Students will learn better and retain more when they are active participants because learning is an active process which should involve talking (Cieniewicz, 2002). It means, the students should be active in the classroom. To encourage the students to participate in the classroom, the teacher usually use some techniques. One of the techniques which is usually used by the teacher is elicitation technique. Elicitation technique is a technique used by the teacher to elicit students’ responds and to stimulate students to talk in the classroom.

Darn (2008) states that elicitation is preferable method that helps promote students involvement in the lesson and develops learner centered classroom. Through the elicitation technique the time for students to speak or the students talking time (STT) in the classroom increase automatically and the time for the teacher to speak or teacher talking time (TTT) decrease.

Elicitation technique is used by the teacher to elicit the students during the lesson to get the information about what students already know and need to know. This technique also can be used as a technique to measure student’s understanding to the material that given by the teacher. In eliciting the students, teacher can give some question to students. Elicitation technique involves asking questions and that questioning is one of the principal ways in which teachers control the classroom discourse, Walsh (2013). It is used by the teacher to know what students’ response to the question or to the material. Walsh (2013), defines elicitation techniques as strategies used by teachers to get learners to respond

In addition, eliciting is a technique that ESL teachers can use to get information about what the students know and don't know. This means that the teacher becomes more capable and doesn't waste time rehashing the students' existing knowledge. Eliciting creates a learner-centered environment and is very thought-provoking for the students.

Elicitation is a technique by which the teacher gets the learners to give information rather than giving it to them. In the classroom elicitation is an important technique for various reasons. It helps develop a learner-centered dynamic, it makes learning memorable as learners can link new and old information, and it can help produce a dynamic and stimulating environment.

Elicitation can be of four types: choice (responder has the choice to agree or disagree with the statement) product (responder should reply with factual information) process (responder replies with opinions or interpretations) and meta process (where the teacher asks the students to think through their own reasoning or thought processes), (Mehan, 1979).

An elicitation is an act whose function is to request a linguistic response –linguistic. Although the response may be a non-verbal surrogate such as a nod or raise hand.( Sinclair & Coulthard,1992:9)




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