Concept and Definition of Sociolinguistics

Concept and Definition of Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that takes language as an object of study, in a way that is usually distinguished from how syntax, semantics, morphology, and phonology handle it. It is a field that analyzes language as part of social property. The study explores the functions and the varieties of language, the contacts between different languages, attitudes of people towards language use and users, changes of language, as weel as plans on language. In the early definition of the study, some linguistics used the term sociology of language, while others name it sociolinguistics, Jendra (2010:9).

Sociolinguistics allowed by two types, that are sociolinguictics or micro socilinguistics and the sociology of language or macro sociolingusitics. In this distinction, sociolinguistics is cocerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how languages function in communcation, the equivalent goal in the sociology of language is trying to discover how social tructure can be better understood through the study of language, example how certain linguistic features serve to characterize particular social arragements.

Hudson in Wardhaugh (2006:13) The difference as follows, sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society, whereas the sociology of language is the study of society in relation to language. In other words, in sociolinguistics we study language and society in order to find out as much as we can about what kind of thing language is, and in the sociology of language we reverse the direction of out interest.

According to Trudgill in Wardhaugh (2006:14) The differentiate studies that considers to be clearly sociolinguistic in nature from those that cleraly or not, for, as he says,’while everybody would agree that sociolinguistics has something to do with language and society, it is clearly also not concerned with everything that could be considered “language and society”. The problem, therefore, lies in the drawing of the line between language and society and sociolinguistics. Certain kinds of work combine insights from sociology and linguistics. Examples of such work are attempts to deal with the structure of discourse and conversation, speech acts, studies in the ethnography of speaking, investigations of such matters as kinship systems, studies in the sociology of language, example bilingualism, code switching, and diaglossia, and certain ‘practical’ concerns such as various aspects of teaching and languge behaviour in classrooms.

Based on the teory from some expert above, It can be concluded that sociolinguistics is a branch of sociene that closely related to sociology, the relationship with social factors in a speech society as well as studying of language varieties.




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