Since the first quarter of 2020, Covid-19 has become a pandemic worldwide. Once the World Health Organization (WHO)  announced  Covid-19  as  a  global  pandemic,  the  world  rushed  to cover all potentials, which resulted in the addition of positive patients Covid-19, including the cessation  of  public  activities,  social  or  physical  distancing,  and  a  lockdown  announcement (Chavez et al., 2020). The cessation includes the demand for working and learning from home. These kinds of situations hit the education system in some affected countries, and Indonesia is no  exception. The  government  has  made  drastic  changes  to  adjust  the  teaching  and  learning process. All students at the early childhood education level up to the higher education level were forced to  change  their  regulations  in  distance  learning  (Churiyah  et  al.,  2020).  The  implementation  of distance learning by engaging the use of technology is noted in carrying out the teaching and learning activities in a structured manner in which there is normal, substantive, and supportive communication or relationships between students and teachers (Bozkurt et al., 2015; Buselic, 2012; Griffiths, 2016).

Furthermore, online learning emphasizes the synchronous and asynchronous models which offer  internet-based  learning.  In  conducting  synchronous  learning,  students  and  teacher  are engaged in direct interaction through any online media.  Meanwhile, in asynchronous learning, students  and  teachers  are  not  engaged  directly  at  the  same  time  (Rasmitadila  et  al.,  2020). Practically,  in  higher  education,  online  distance  learning  could  take  shape  as  the  flipped classroom, hybrid, mixed asynchronous-synchronous, and all asynchronous learning. For sure, the  application  of  distance  or  online  learning  needs  the  involvement  of  the  internet  and technology use. It seems that technology takes over online learning, but teachers and students’ role  goes  beyond  the appearance of technology. Online learning does not stop only at the use of  technology,  but  it  emphasizes  how  students  connect  with  content,  instructors  or  teachers, and other students; to acquire information and advance through learning experience (Eko et al., 2020). 

It is undeniable that online learning has brought many benefits to education, as postulated by some online researchers (Aljawarneh, 2020; Alomyan, 2017; Eko et al., 2020; Linjawi & Alfadda, 2018). However, the most troubling is the unresolved issue of online learner retention rates (Doe et al., 2017). Smith (2010) also found out that more than 40% of students of online students appear to break off of online classes in total. Besides, Doe et al. (2017) mention that technology can facilitate social exchange. Still, ultimately social experiences are essential for the emotions of the students, not technology. In essence, the emotional experience affects. The emotional experience, in turn, influences how actively the learner engages. In conclusion, one Revealing Higher Education Students’ Readiness significant factor that cannot be overlooked in any online attrition rate discourse is how ready students for online learning.

In line with the previous proofs, students’ readiness to use technology was one of the most prominent keys to successfully conducting online learning in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic  (Hasani  et  al.,  2020).  They  found  that  students’  readiness  is  a  predictor  of  online learning. Students’ self-competence, which refers to students’ self-efficacy in ICT, is one of the success keys of online learning. In line with (Chung et al., 2020), the more confidence the students in using ICT will enhance their readiness to complete their online learning. Readiness is a potent factor in the effective implementation of e-learning. The most critical readiness factor in this context  is  the  readiness  of  students,  professors,  and  technology.  The  attitude  of  individuals, especially learners, is also a key factor determining how online learning could be conducted successfully (Ali, 2010; Rasouli et al., 2016). 

Thus,  a  teacher  needs  to  examine  students’  readiness  to  conduct  online  learning.  Most researchers used Online  Learning Readiness Scale (OLRS) proposed by  (Hung et al., 2010).  Five  aspects  are  being  concerned,  such  as  computer/internet  self-efficacy,  self-directed learning, learner control, motivation for learning, and online communication self-efficacy.

Many  investigations  mentioned  previously  highlighted  the  importance  of  assessing students’ readiness for online learning. There are still limited related studies that explore more in  which  aspect  of  readiness  students  encounter  difficulty  in  enhancing  their  readiness  and abrupt  online  learning  for  higher  education  in  Indonesia.  As  Kementerian  Pendidikan  dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia (Mendikbud/Ministry of Education and Culture)  (cited in Eko et al., 2020) has announced, the COVID-19 pandemic results in the usual direct full face-to-face learning in the classroom switch to an online learning setting, which probably will last until the end of the semester. Having full online learning throughout the semester is a new challenge for both the teachers and the students. In line with the situation above, the English Education Study Program students at Tidar University, Indonesia, have impacted an  abrupt adoption of the learning system. They were forced to shift their learning routines from flipped and blended or hybrid learning to fully online learning for the whole semester. That was such an abrupt shift for the students to adjust themselves to promote their learning achievements. By focusing on the  students’  readiness  for  abrupt  online  learning,  this  study  investigates  their  readiness covering the five aspects proposed by Hung et al. (2010) and which aspect becomes a nuisance for the students during the abrupt online learning.  Regarding the indefinite condition of the COVID 19 pandemic in Indonesia, resolving aspects that become  a  burden  for  the  students  on  online learning is crucial in this study to promote online learning success.




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