Concept of Direct interaction

Concept of Direct interaction

1.    Definition of Direct Interaction Strategy


Carmin & Traub in miller (2004: 3) Direct Instruction is an approach to teaching. It is skills-oriented, and the teaching practices it implies are teacher-directed. It emphasizes the use of small-group, face-to-face instruction by teachers and aides using carefully articulated lessons in which cognitive skills are broken down into small units, sequenced deliberately, and taught explicitly

Center on Innovation & Improvement (2008: 1) defines Direct instruction refers to instruction led by the teacher, as in “the teacher provided direct instruction in solving these problems.” Direct Instruction is an explicit, intensive instructional method that allows students of all abilities to become confident, capable learners

According to Sutton and Sutton (1997), direct instruction is a teaching method that can be used successfully to teach almost any subject in which the student is required to master certain academic skills

Direct instruction” is described as teacher-directed and fast-paced, using a highly structured presentation of antecedents and consequences (Gersten, Woodward, & Darch, 1986: 17). This meticulously developed, highly scripted method allows constant interactions between the student and the teacher. The responsibility for student learning rests directly with the teacher’s design and delivery of instruction.

Valiathan. P (2009: 3) Direct Instruction (DI)  is used to describe learning material in which the teacher or expert transmits information directly to learners structuring learning time to reach a clearly defined set of objectives as efficiently as possible

2.    Types of Direct Interaction

Joyce et al (2000) defines the type of Direct interaction as follows:

a.    Orientation 

            In the first phase of direct, explicit instruction, teachers activate students’ relevant prior knowledge and experiences and help them to connect it to the new knowledge they will gain from the lesson. They also familiarize learners with the focus of a lesson. In student-friendly language, they explain the lesson’s purpose, telling students what they are expected to be able to do.

b.    Presentation

            This is the explicit phase of the instructional model, in which teachers identify a specific  strategy for students, then model exactly where, how, and why to apply the strategy to get meaning from a reading passage. If the teaching objective involves a strategy such as comparing ideas, teachers might use a graphic organizer as part of theirmodeling, thinking aloud frequently as they complete the organizer. If the objective involves helping students grasp an important content-area concept from a nonfiction selection, teachers may identify its characteristics, along with examples and non-examples, definitions, and rules

c.    Structured Practice 

The structured practice phase of direct, explicit instruction calls for teachers to begin the process of handing over to students the strategy or concept that they have modeled. Using new but related material, teachers apply the steps of a strategy or the dimensions of a concept, involving students in ways in which they cannot fail. For example, students use graphic organizers, sentence frames, or other structured supports that organize the successful use of the strategy.

d.   Guided Practice 

Guided practice is the phase of instruction that helps students move toward independence. In this phase, teachers give students increasing responsibility for applying a strategy or concept to more new material. Teachers use structured response techniques to ensure that every student participates and to check the accuracy of students’ responses in order to provide immediate corrective feedback, if necessary. The teacher withdraws support gradually and only when students show that they can work on their own

e.    Independent Practice

In the final phase of direct, explicit instruction, students independently practice work with a strategy or concept, applying their new knowledge in unfamiliar situations. During this phase, students have the main responsibility for completing academic tasks on their own, although teachers still monitor what they do and respond to their efforts.


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