An Analysis of Speech Acts in Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities: A Pragmatics Analysis

                                                                  CHAPTER I

1.1  Background of the Study
        Illocutionary act (Austin (1975:5, 116, 121, 139) is an utterance which has "performative" just in case it is issued in the course of the "doing of an action". Furthermore he said that  illocutionary act is an act (1) for the performance of which the speaker must make it clear to some other person that the act is performed, and (2) the performance of which involves the production of what he calls 'conventional consequences' such as  rights, commitments,  and  obligations. Thus, for example, in order to successfully perform a promise the speaker must make clear to speaker’s audience that the act  of  the speaker  is performing  a
promise and in the performance of the act,  speaker will be undertaking an obligation to do the promisedthing; therefore promising is an illocutionary act in the present sense. For example, “I promise to attend your party tonight”. Without using the word “promise”, actually the speaker has made a promise to the hearer
that speaker will do future action that is the speaker attends hearer’s party.
             Bach  and  Harnish  in  Devitt  &  Hanley, (2003:  stated that  an illocutionary act is an attempt to communicate, which they again analyze as the expressing of an attitude. It means that to show the illocutionary act, the speaker should make a communication to the hearer by language.  As  we know  that language is a means of communication that cannot be separated from human’s life since it  is  used to  interact each  other. As Hartley (1982:11) emphasizes that
language is a means of communication. To communicate by speaking is not a ?????????????


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