A.    Background of the Study

In English teaching learning, students should master four language skills. The language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing. As a language skill, reading has significant role that influence the other language skills and components. In addition, the success of learning any subject matters depends on the competence of reading comprehension since it functions as a major tool for finding and understanding information. Reading also has the value to help students learn to express their own thought and to make them familiar with the language pattern and ways of using language efficiently. Thus, mastering reading skill is very important.

Rebecca (2005: 8) Reading is fundamentally important for success. It opens the door to personal freedom or shuts the door to opportunity. Learning to read is a means to an end. If children have difficulty learning to read early, how can they be expected to excel in other subjects as well? The best prevention of reading difficulties, therefore, is early intervention strategies at the preschool/kindergarten level. Instead of heated debates on which approach is best suited for early reading success, educators should be discussing the most efficient method(s) that produces the best results.

In Senior High School, students learn several kinds of text, such as procedural text, narrative text, descriptive text, report text etc. Recount text is one of texts which are taught in Senior High school. While it is mentioned in Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional, No. 22 tentang Ruang Lingkup Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk Sekolah Menengah Atas / Madrasah Aliyah, the scope is, “Kemampuan memahami dan menciptakan berbagai teks fungsional pendek dan monolog serta esei berbentuk procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, report, news item, analytical exposition, hortatory exposition, spoof, explanation, discussion, review, public speaking.” (Depdiknas, Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional, No. 22 Th. 2006 : 308)

Based on the description above and based on writer’s observation at the first year students of Senior High School at SMA, She found that the students still face some difficulties in answering and understanding the texts especially recount texts.

The students’ problem in reading is the feeling that they do not know what the text is about. This problem happens in SMA which is connected with vocabulary mastery. Most of students will surrender in trying comprehending the text which is interrupted by lacking of vocabulary. So, it becomes problem for them in understanding the whole passage and then they stop reading.

From this observation, the problem connects with the student’s lack of vocabulary. They think that they do not have enough vocabulary to comprehend the text. In addition, they lack of interest and unattractive teaching method. Therefore, the students need variation in learning English. By changing the learning method, the students are expected to be more interested in reading activity.

One of the techniques is pre-reading activity which it can engage students in activity before reading. It will stimulate them in reading. These problems are occurred in SMA. The students are not interested in reading the text. Therefore it will be very good, if we can find the method which can increase the students’ interest to learn reading.

According to Grellet (1981: 8) stated that “Reading is an active skill.” Therefore, applying pre- reading activity will increase students’ attention in reading. The students have to work with the materials actively. The conclusion is the teacher is expected to hold an attractive activity to involve students to be active in the classroom.

Pre-reading activity could be a way to students to comprehend English text easily. Therefore through pre-reading activities by brainstorming their mind to related topic, they activate their background knowledge that it may take advantage for them to comprehend the text better. As Hudson said that “Prior knowledge may have some effects in students’ understanding because a reader who already has an elaborate schema can more easily fit incoming textual information into those schemata.” (Hudson 2007: 142) This assumption is related to how students comprehend the text.

Based on explanation above, the writer hopes that students feel easy to apply and to practice this technique in understanding reading text, especially in recount text. Moreover, the influence of Pre-reading activity also helps students improve their achievement in English reading skill.

In this research, the writer will conduct the research using pre-reading activity in teaching recount text in SMA. Hopefully by using pre- reading activity, students can be helped to comprehend recount text easily. Therefore, based on the explanation above, the writer will conduct the research with the title: “The Effectiveness of Pre-Reading Activity in Students’ Comprehension in Reading Recount Text (Experimental Study at Senior High School in the First Year Students of SMA).




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