A.      Background
            English is one of the international languages that is used by many people in the world. Therefore, using English is the easiest way to communicate with the people from other countries about many aspects in human life such as technology, economy, social aspects, and politics. In Indonesia, English is a foreign language. Learning foreign language is an integrated process that the learner should study the four skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. We use it to understand our world through listening and reading and to communicate our feeling, need, and desire through speaking and writing. By having more knowledge about language skill we have much better chance of understanding and being understood and getting our wish and need from these around us. But, in this research the writer only focuses about writing.
Writing is of the basic skills in language. It is very important to understand more, because writing is different with the other basics. Writing involves some language components (spelling, grammar, and vocabulary). This is similiar to what Brain and Claire May (1996: 60), state that writing clear sentences requires you learn the rules of English grammar and mechanics such as  the correct use of  verbs and pronouns, as well as commas and other marks of punctuation. There are various ways to organize the sentences in a piece of writing. One of them is descriptive  paragraph.
Descriptive paragraph is a paragraph that is used to "describe" the situation, what people are doing and what people see. A good descriptive paragraph is a paragraph that brings the reader to jump in and as if he was present there and immediately perform, look and see what we have described.
Therefore, many techniques applied by the researcher to help the teachers in teaching writing,  West (1973: 4) states that teachers very in teaching writing technique and students differ in the way they learn. Topical  approach may be one of fruitfull technique that can be applied by English teachers in order to guide and help the students to improve their writing. Topical approach help the students to write down their argument about particular designed with interesting topic and also several questions that lead the writer to create a paragraph, as like Neman (1989) states that topic is the esspence of ideas which is meant to get across in writing.
Based on my observation, there are some problem found in the field when giving writing material to the students, especially the descriptive paragraph. The first problem is that the students’ writing is not comprehensible, because the content of the composition is not relevant to the topic, the ideas is not clearly states, the ideas and sentences are not well language use. The second problem is that there are many errors in vocabulary, grammar, and spelling. Another problem is the student have low motivation and are not interested in doing the task since  the writing activities are not interesting. Usually, the students are asked to write sentences and paragraph without giving some topic so that is difficult for them to express their ideas on a piece of paper and also the students have difficulty telling their experience. Writing is difficult for them since they have to mastery vocabulary, spelling, and grammar. In reference to the explanation above, the researcher has motivation to do research in improving writing ability through topical approach. It is hoped that the topical approach can improve the students’ ability in writing, especially descriptive paragraph.
B.   Problem Statement
            Based on the previous statement, the writer formulates research questions follows:“
1.      How is the the students’ improvement in writing descriptive paragraph through  Topical Approach?”
2.      How is the students’ interest to study descriptive paragraph through Topical Approach?”
C.   Objective of the Study
            In this part , the writer formulates the objective of the research:” to find out.
1.        To explain the student’s improvement in writing a descriptive paragraph   through Topical Approach.”
2.        To explain the student’s interest to learn descriptive paragraph  through Topical Approach.”
D.       Significance of the Study
The result of this result of this research where expected to be meaning full information, specially for the students of SMK Negeri I Maros  to  develop their skill in writing through Topical Approach and then expected to be able to teach students more easier in developing  paragraph by using particular to topic ( topical approach).
E.        Scope of the Study
This research is limited on the use of ‘Topical Approach in improving writing achievement of the students. The kind of writing is descriptive paragraph focused on content, and organization. The researcher focuses on improving the students’ writing skill through Topical Approach at class X of SMK Negeri I Maros.

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