Definition and Types of Code Switching

Code Switching

Nguyen cited in Alhourani (2018; 11) “code switching is occurances that is quite common in formal as well as informal communicative events that occure in bilingual and multilingual context”. It means that these cases are usually happen in social life and code switching usually use in formal and informal situation. Basically, switching language must master two or more languages.

According to Hoffman 1991 cited in Citra (2015; 52) states that “Code switching can occur quite frequently in an informal conversation among people who are familiar and have a shared educational, ethic, and socio-economic background. It is avoided in a formal speech situation among people especially to those who have little in common factors in terms of socio status”.

Hornberger and McKay cited in Widi (2020; 138) defines code switching occurs when there are two or more languages exist in a community and it make speakers frequently switch from one language to another language. Code switching happens in conversation between two speakers. In the latter case, it can occur between sentence (inter- sentential) or within a single sentence (intra- sentential).

Code switching can appear from individual choices or it can be used as primary identity person itself.

The Types of Code Switching

Code Switching divided into some types in sociolinguistic. Bloom and Gumprez (1972) state that “the first linguist who introduce the concept of setting, situation, and event taken as stages recognized in the statement of personal strategies to analyze the meaning of choice between the two varieties as example, situational switching and metaphorical switching”. However the writer used Poplack (1980) to prove the code switching case in public figures vlog in youtube channel. Poplack cited in Widi (2020; 183) determined that code switching have three types namely “Inter-sentential code switching, Intra-sentential code switching, Extra-sentential/Tag switching”.

a. Inter-sentential switching  

Inter-sentential switching happens when the speaker speaks clause in one language, and then a uses different clause in a different language. It is a complete sentence which the utterances consist of two different sentences in two different languages. According to Poplack (1980), Inter-sentential switching is a switch at clause or sentence boundary; one clause being in one language, the order clause in the other. For instance, “baju kamu merah muda, I like it”. In this statement, we can indentify that sentence is Inter-sentential switching form. the speaker switches her/his language Indonesia to English language in a different utterance. In here, the speaker shows his/her ability in mastering English language towards listener as well. In conclusion, inter-sentential code switching used to switch between sentence boundaries, where one sentence is in one language and the other is in another .the speaker or addressee in this situation is fluent in using both language or at least understands what the speaker says.

b. Intra-sentential switching

An Intra-sentential code switching is found when a word, a phrase or clause of a foreign language occurs within the sentence in the base language. It means that there will probably happen in two languages in one sentence. Poplack (1980) states that “intra-sentential code switching occurs within the clause boundary, including the word boundary”. in a sentence , the speaker adds single word or phrase in different language. for example, ‘apa arti invitation anak anak? Angkat tangan jika ada yang tahu’ is an intra-sentential code switching. The word invitation in example has position as noun in English grammar.

c. Extra-sentential switching or tag switching

In this part, Poplack (1980) states that Extra-sentential switching is switching of either a single word or a tag phrase (or both) from one language to another. This type is common in intra-sentential switches. It involves the insertion of a tag from one language into an utterance in other language.

 Extra-sentential or tag switching is a switch where the speaker inserts a tag from one language into utterance which is entirely in another languages. Extra-sentential switching commonly is used from other language of foreign language which is inserted in a conversation between speaker and listener.

Referring towards the statement above, Extra–sentential switching or Tag switching is simply the insertion of tag in one language in the utterance from conversation which is entirely in the other language. Usually this case, we found  in daily conversation. For instance, ‘By the way, simila kok belum datang jug ya’ the word ‘By the way’ is a tag switching. It isn’t occur in the beginning in a sentence. It can be occur in the end of sentence. Another example “semuanya akan baik baik aja. O.K?” these are other example of tag switching which it occured in the end of the sentence.




Postingan terkait: