The Concept of Reading

Reading is the process of putting the reader in the contact communicating with ideas (Hornby, A.S, 1998). Reading is a process of looking at written language symbols, converting them into overt or covert speech symbols and then manipulating them so that both the direct (overt) and implied (covert) ideas intended by author maybe understand (Hafner, L, E, & Hayden. B.J., 1982:7) but, according  Haris, J.A., & Edward R.S (1979:27) states that reading is as result of the in play between perception of graphic symbols that represent language, and memory traces of the reader’s past verbal and non verbal experiences. Meanwhile, comprehension is an active process that involves that child’s integration of prior knowledge with information in the text in order to comprehend that text. Among the major goals of reading instruction is the development of learners who understand.
Reading is a complex process, every writer gives reason in his or her to establish meaning. Charles in Hamka (2005:9) stated that reading is a transmitting of information process where the author is regarded as the informant and the reader. In other hand is receiver during reading process the reader interacts with the author directly.
According to Mark A. Clark and Sandra in Hamka (1988:15) define that reading is an active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitoring comprehensions to establish meaning.
2. Reading Comprehension
In connection with that, Hornby, A.S (1998) states that reading comprehension is not just reading with a loudly voice but reading established to understand the meaning of word, sentences, and paragraph senses relationship among the ideas. If the students just read and cannot understand the content of the text, it means that the fails in comprehensions. Than, according Smith and Johnson, (1978:56) state that reading comprehension means the understanding, evaluating, utilizing of the information and gained through an interaction between reader and author.
According to Reinking and Scenery in Hamka (2006:9), they stated that reading comprehension understanding what has been read. It is an active thinking process that depends not only on comprehension skill but also the students experience and prior knowledge comprehensions involve understanding vocabularies, seeing the relationship among words and concept, making judgment and evaluating.
Based on definitions above, we may concluded that reading comprehension is such us a kind of language between an author and a reader in which the written language become the medium that cause the dialogue happen when the  persons communicated through the print.

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