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Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching



CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
A.      Background
Language is a tool of communication to make human interaction. People communicate and interact with others using language. In some community English has become an international language. Most of the community in the whole world use English to communicate with others who have different languages. Because of that English is very important to be taught and learned by the students. 
In Indonesia English learning is taught as one of the compulsory subjects from elementary school for fifth and sixth level, junior to senior high school up to the universities. In learning English there are four skills namely: speaking, writing, listening and reading. In this sense the writer especially discuss about reading because it can cover the three other skills.Barbara Taylor (1986:3) states that reading is very closely allied to other language processes such as listening, speaking and writing.
Reading skills should be thought earlier to the children (Tessero: 2003). Reading habits can increase the students’ achievement. Most Indonesian learner are acknowledge that reading a low will support them reaching their goals of studying, but categories low for years. Many efforts have been performed to socialize reading as a burden for most school ages. This phenomena effects them to be creative readers, that finally will influence their comprehension towards their achievement is categories low.
The purpose of reading in many languages is to inform ourselves about something we are interested, or to challenge certain our methods. In other words, to extend our experience of the world in which we live.  A person may read to get information. He may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read (Janz: 2004). Although every student knows how to read, many have never learned good reading skills. (Royse, 2001: 127).
The purpose for reading is to guide the reader to select the appropriate texts, to determine the appropriate to reading comprehension.
The nature of reading is not merely read the text trough line, a reader has to bring his mind into the text to comprehend what is read. Cooper (1984:4) states that to comprehend the written words the reader must able to: understand what an author has to structure of organized the ideas and information presented in the text and relate the ideas and information from text to ideas information stored in his or her mind.
The observation result when the researcher conducted teaching practice in VII B class of SMPN 3 Bajeng, the students’ reading comprehension skill still poor.  All of the students can be read but only a few of students can comprehend or can understand what they have read especially English text. It because many factors such as the students consider that English is a subject that very difficult,bored and scares because meaning and letters are different.The other factor is the teacher always uses the same method to teach English subject like the direct method. It is also make the students more bore to study English. As value of observation in the class room the students’ has score 6.0. This score is as a poor category. In this research the aim is to solve this problem until the students have a good score, while the standard curriculum is 6.5. The researcher wants to achieve the score at 7.5target in learning reading comprehension.
Furthermore, comprehension is a really important either in reading and other skills. The ability of someone to comprehend is closely related to one’s background knowledge. Coady (1972:12) states that the interest and background knowledge would enable the students to comprehend at reasonable rate and keep him involved in the spite of synthetic difficulty.
The technique of teaching English is to develop especially to improving reading comprehension,because the technique of teaching influences the students’ success. So, the teacher of English should select the suitable method or technique to teach and material to teach. There are many approaches or techniques have been applied in the English curriculum. In general the techniques in reading found at High School are comprehension question answering exercises, therefore can improve the teaching of reading in order that the students’ activity involves in reading class particularly in the given tasks.
Based on the situation above, the writer is interested to conduct a research on Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching at the first year students of SMPN 3 Bajeng.”
B.       Problem Statement
Based on the description above, the writer formulates the problem statements as follows:
“How is the improvement of students’ reading comprehension through reciprocal teaching?”
C.      Objective of The Study
The objective of the research is to find outthe improvement of students’ reading comprehension through reciprocal teaching.
D.      Significance of The Research
 The result of the study is expected to be useful information and a reference for the English learners in general, particularly for the English teachers, and also it will be expected to give a new insight in improving English reading comprehension.
E.       Scope of The Research
To specify this research, the researcherused of Reciprocal Teaching to improve reading comprehension at the first year students of SMPN 3 Bajeng. It is limited on the students comprehending in reading text. 

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