The Use of Role Play in Speaking

A.    Background
Language is primarily speech. Consequently, spoken English should be given a properly position. From the four language skills, the researcher focuses her attention on speaking since it has an important role in communication. Widdowson in Bahraeni (2003:1) states that “an act of communication through as a part of dialogue or rather forms of verbal exchange interaction involve not just those of others, one listen and others respond direct or indirectly”.According to Brumfit and Johnson (1983), “the difficulty is that the ability to compose sentences is not the only ability we need to communicate. Communication only take place when we make use of sentences to perform a variety of different acts of an essentially”.
In teaching English, it is necessary to develop teaching techniques especially in teaching speaking because the technique of teaching influences the students’ success. Therefore, that teacher of English may select suitable method, technique and material to teach.
Littlewood in Richard and Rodger (1986:66) states “one of the most characteristics features of communicate language teaching is that it pays systematic attention of functional as well as structural aspects of language”. We can use grammatical sentences and structural sentences, when we will be communicate in speaking.
Role-Playing is simultaneously interesting and useful to students because it emphasizes the “real-world side of science. It challenges them to deal with complex problems with no single “right” answer and to use a variety of skills beyond those employed in a typical research project. In particular, role-playing presents the students a valuable opportunity to learn not just the course content, but other perspectives on it.
The problem with teaching pure, undiluted information is that afterwards, the students, if they paid attention, will be left asking “what is it for? What does it mean?” Role-playing enables them to start answering these questions and to start expanding them: “what does it mean to a farmer in Nigeria, to a coal miner in Ohio, to an oak population in the Balkans. “Information, alone, rarely makes people change their minds, but personal experience often does. Role-playing, like any good inquiry approach, transforms the content of education from information into experience.
The creative aspect of the exercise will make it seem more like play than like work. The pressure to solve a problem or to resolve a conflict for their character can motivate a student far more typical of the pressure that will be on them in real life. Role-playing exercises are particularly useful in courses for non-majors to emphasize the intersection between science and daily life. Popular geosciences role-playing scenarios generally deal with hazards and environmental issues that combine natural and social sciences. (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/roleplyaing/reasons.html)
The indicator needs to decide the context for the exercise and the role(s) that the students will play. If the students are taking human roles, the context is generally a specific problem such as global warming or dealing with an active volcano. Lessons need to be carefully explained and supervised in order to involve the students and to enable them to learn as much as possible from the experience. However, a well-done scenario never runs the same way twice, teaches people things they might not ordinarily have learned, and tends to be fun for all involved.
Like any inquiry-based exercise, role-playing needs to be followed by a debriefing for the students to define what they have learned and to reinforce it. This can be handled in reflective essays, or a concluding paragraph at the end of an individual written assignment, or in class discussion before the role-play began. (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/roleplaying/howto.html)
The researcher considers a phenomenon among the students of Junior high school who learn speaking. Almost all of them wish to speak, but they find it difficult to express their ideas. This condition inspires the researcher to infer that role Play can make students participate actively in speaking English.
B.     Problem Statements
Relation to the background above, the researcher proposes research questions as follows:
1.      How does the use of Role-Play Technique significantly improve the students’ speaking ability?
2.      How does the use of Role-Play Technique effective to improve the students’ speaking ability?
C.    Objective of the Research
1.      Whether or not the use of Role-Play can significantly improve the students’ speaking ability.
2.      Whether or not the Role-Play Technique is effective to improve the students’ speaking ability.
D.     Scope of the Research
The scope of the research is restricted the effectiveness of Role Play Technique  in improving the students’ speaking ability of MTs Syekh Yusuf.
E.     Significance of the Research
The findings of the research are expected to be significant for the students who are learning English because they will be get high motivation in learning speaking using the Role Play Technique and for the teachers this is one technique that can be used in teaching speaking.
F.     Definition of term
1.      Role-Play technique is a technique of the teaching and learning in which the students are given certain roles to play.
2.      Speaking
That speakers or seem to speak (Simon and Sekuster, 1996:1287).
3.      Ability
The physical or mental power or skill needed to do something. (Paul Prouter, 1995:2).

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