This chapter presents introduction of the background of the topic, which consists of the background of the study, the reason for choosing the topic, the statement of the  problem,  the  purpose  of  the  study,  the  significance  of  the  study,  and  the outline of the report.

1.1  Background of the Study

The teachers‘ role to make students interested in learning is very important. They should  know  how  to  make  their  students  study  well.  Especially  in  learning  a language  in  order  to  get  optimal  knowledge  of  the  target  language,  a  teacher should  be  able  to  stimulate  the  students  to  interact  using  the  target  language. Teachers  also  should  consider  the  language  used  to  interact  with  the  students, which will encourage them to communicate using English. 

The main goal of the language learning is to be able to communicate in the target  language.  Hence,  some  opportunities  are  needed  by  students  to  use  the target  language.  As  students,  they  spend  much  time  in  the  classroom  in  which they  learn  the  target  language,  so  classroom  is  considered  as  the  possible  place where  the  students  get  the  opportunities  to  speak  in  the  target  language.  The opportunities  are  realized  through  interaction  in  the  classroom.  The  meaning  of interaction  here  is  when  the  teacher  and  students  engage  in  a  turn-taking conversation.  The  interaction  happened  in  the  class  sometimes  is  elicited  by  the teacher.  They  tend  to  ask  a  question  to  the  students  to  elicit  the  students‘ participation  in  order  to  create  teacher-students  interaction.  In  this  chance,  the teacher can create an opportunity for the students to interact in English by asking a  question  in  the  target  language.    By  interacting  with  the  teacher,  the  students will  apply  their  language  knowledge  and  also  get  many  opportunities  to  practice communicating in English. As stated by Liu Yanfen and Zhao Yuqin, (2010: 77), through  the  interaction  with  teachers,  students  can  increase  their  language  store and use all languages they possess. Interaction is an important concept for English language  teachers‖.  Thus,  the role  of  the teacher is  crucial  in  class  since  s/he should know how to elicit the students speak in English. Interaction is considered as the one of the effective ways to learn a language.

The  existence  of  interaction  is  directly  influenced  by  the  teachers  talk. Teacher  talk  is  a  speech  delivered  by  the  teacher  when  they  teach  or  explain  a lesson to the students. It is not a one-way speech but it also engages the students, so,  teacher  does  not  talk  all  the  time  during  the  lesson.  The  engagement  of  the students in the teacher talk makes the relation that affects the students. Thus, the teacher  talk  considered  has  beneficial  affection  to  the  students,  it  will  be  an advantageous input to students if it is arranged or delivered in a good proportion.

In  fact,  creating  learning  situation,  which  will  encourage  students  to  talk  or actively  participate,  is  not  easy.  Thus,  teachers  should  function  their  talk  as ‗central  point‘  to  gain  effective  teaching-learning  situation  (Vygotsky,  1978). How  the  teacher  manages  their  talk  should  be  considered  since  their  talk  will affect students comprehension to the lesson.  Since  English  is  considered  as  a  foreign  language  in  Indonesia,  the students  get  less  supportive  environment.  As stated by Paul, (2003:76), ―in  an English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom, in particular, the opportunities to practice  verbal  communication  outside  the  classroom  are  often  significantly limited‖. The teacher talk is likely to be the major or even the only source of target language input (Stern, 1983: 400). The classroom will be the possible place for  the  students  to  practice  the  target  language  and  to  get  an  input  from  the teacher.

One  of  the  main  problems  of  teaching  English,  which  is  faced  by  the teacher is the existence  of unresponsive students. They prefer to become passive rather than to participate in learning process actively. This circumstance becomes common  in  some  school,  because,  English,  as  we  know,  is  a  foreign  language which  rarely  used  by  the  students  outside  the  classroom.  Furthermore,  the environment  around  the  students  is  not  quite  supportive  and  the  opportunities  to apply  the  target  language  are  even  fewer.  The  most  possible  way  to  practice  is through interaction with the teacher.

Dealing with the fact that teacher-centered teaching method is widely used in which the teacher stands in front of the class teach students. They steer all the learning  process  in  classroom.  Thus,  the  teacher  elicitation  to  interact  with  the students  is  very  indispensable  as  encouragement  for  the  students  to  speak  in English.  Brown  (2001:82)  states  that,  ―a  teacher-centered  or  teacher-fronted classroom is appropriate for some of classroom time‖. Teacher responsibility is to keep the interaction flowing smoothly and efficiently.????




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