The Types of Motivation

The Types of Motivation
Gilakjani, Leong and Sabouri (2012: 10) Motivation is comprised of three levels: the language level,  the learner level and thelearning situation level. The motivation processes at the language level can be described comprehensively by using the traditional concepts of integrative and instrumental motivation; at the learner level motivation involves  the  influence  of  various  individual  traits  of language learners, such as, the need for achievement and self-confidence. The  learning situation  level  is  also influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives. For example, in  extrinsic  motives,  courses are  related to the syllabus, the teaching materials, the teaching method and learning tasks. In intrinsic motives, teacher concerns the motivational impact of the teacher‘s  personality, behaviour and teaching style, the  group is related to the characteristics  of  the  learner  group.  In  general, motivation  is  dynamic  in  nature  and  can  vary  from moment to moment depending on the learning context or task.
Mahadi and Jafari (2012; 232) defines types of motivation as Integrative & instrumental motivation and Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
a.       Integrative & Instrumental Motivation
The integrative motivation means learning the language with the intention of participating in the culture of its people. And instrumental  motivation suggests and implies that a learner learns the language in  support of a purpose relating to occupation or further useful motive. These two types of motivation can affect and control the procedure and outcome of learning. The integrative and instrumental motivation is useful and effective factor for second language learning.
b.      Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation
Theory  categorizes  and  tells  apart  diverse  types  of motivation  in  accordance  with  the  different  rationales,  causes,  or  targets  which  strengthen  a  deed  or  an achievement.  In  proportion  to  this  theory,  the  most  fundamental  difference  is  between  intrinsic  motivation  and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the eagerness and interest to do and take part in some certain activities because an individual feels that they are attractive and pleasant. 
Students  who  have  intrinsic  motivation  are  inclined  to  stay  with  intricate  and  complicated  problems  and  gain knowledge  from  their  slips  and  mistakes.  Besides,  intrinsic  motivation  is essential and fundamental for the integration process through which elements of one’s accessible internal awareness and knowledge is assimilated or mixed with new knowledge.
Extrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is the propensity to take part in activities because of the reasons which do not link to the activity. These reasons can be the anticipation of reward or punishment, like being successful in the exam or getting a good mark.


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