The application of problem based learning strategy to improve the students’ speaking ability at SMA

This chapter deals with background problem statement, the objective of the research, significance of the research, and scope of the research.
A.      Background
Language is means of communication, and it is an integral part of human life. Therefore, everyone must be able to use it in speaking, to master speaking skill is one of the difficulties in learning English. Speaking is one way of finding information through oral communication in the world becomes more and more useful. According to the curriculum, the teaching English in Indonesia should emphasize four skills, namely reading, listening, writing, and speaking. To know English perfectly these four skills should be taught separately. However, the students’ in general can read and write English better than speak it. According to Rasyid (1997:14) stated that the teaching of English in Indonesian school has become perceived and realized need. The perception and realization of this need are based on the nation wide. Assumption that good mastery of the language will instrumentally function not only as the key to many doors to development
 In most conversation, the world flows with just the least of mental urge. People think about what to say, who they are talking to, where they are, and they also need to know how many times to talk. So, focusing on their accuracy and fluency is the main learning process to get developing of the students in their speaking performance.
Moreover, the students get optimal standard achievement in speaking because they do not know what their aims to speak English, the condition and situation in the classroom have not been designed naturally for speaking, and the student still lack in use vocabulary, correct grammatical and acceptable interaction. Therefore, the teacher must regard how the classroom interaction should best be designed to cater the students’ communication need. In this case for improving the students’ speaking ability, the writer is going to carry out the research that emphasize on the aspect of learning goal, creating the learning process (La Costa in Sanjaya:2006:105). This strategy is the named “Problem Based Learning Strategy”.
            According to Taufiq, (2009:8) the students should be active in learning process in choosing to formulate the information, construct the information, consider and reflect the students experience to determine how  knowledge  can be transferred to all situations.
Wilkerson and Gijselears (1996:86) claim that problem based learning (PBL) is characterized by a student- centered approach, teacher as “facilitators rather than disseminators, and open ended problem that “serve as the initial stimulus and framework for learning.
The instructor plays a critical role in helping students become self-directed learners and must create classroom environment in which students “receive systematic instruction in conceptual, strategic, and reflective reasoning in the context of discipline that will ultimately make them more successful in later investigation.

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