The Effectiveness of Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text (GIST) Strategy on Reading Descriptive Text Comprehension Ability of the Seventh Grade Students


The Effectiveness of Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text (GIST) Strategy on Reading Descriptive Text Comprehension Ability of the Seventh Grade Students



This chapter presents background of  research,  research  problem,  research objective, research hypothesis, research significance and the scope of the research.

A.  Background of Research

Reading skill is needed by students to improve their knowledge and other English  skills  and  components.  Reading  enables  people  to  find  out  information from a variety of texts, written or printed information in the forms of newspapers, magazines, advertisements, and brochures. Reading is a complex process both on its teaching and learning. Reading is one of the language skills which is important for academic success. Reading is the process of reconstructing the writer’s idea written in a text or printed symbols based on the reader’s background knowledge and experience.

Reading  comprehension  is  a  complex  activity  to  understand  the  meaning of words.  In reading  activity, we are not only  reading the text, but also trying to understand  what  we  are  reading.  Moreover  we  do  not  only  want  to  get  some information  or  knowledge  but  also  an  enjoyment.  Ability  or  skill  of comprehending  a  message  in  the  text  is  the  goal  of  reading  in  a  language instruction.    However,  comprehending  a  text  message  is  not  easy,  especially  in English.  It  can  be  seen from the students’ reading  comprehension  that  is  still  far from  what  is  expected.  At  seventh  grade  students  in  Junior  High  School  there  is serious problem for them. From my experience in conducting a teaching practice or PPL in the academic year 2013/2014 the seventh grade students of Junior High School still got difficulty in comprehending descriptive text. When I taught them about  reading  descriptive  text  they  were  still  confuse  to  understand  the  meaning and the content of text. The unsatisfactory result of students’ reading descriptive text comprehension might be caused by the following problems.

The first problem is the students’ vocabulary is not sufficient. Students are not  able  to  understand  the  texts  when  they  encounter  words  that  have  actually been taught or told to them. Second, teachers tend to emphasize more on students’ reading result, not on the learning process. Teachers usually do not pay attention on  the  learning    process    but    the    result    of    the    learning.  Third,    the    reading teaching  and  learning  activities  are  more  teacher-centered  in  a  way  that  the reading  instruction  is  based  on  what  the  teachers  tell.  Fourth,  the  strategy  of  the teachers  employ  is  still  conventional,  meaning  that  the  students  sometimes  read text silently or loudly, and after that the teacher  translates the  text  for students. 

Fifth, the reading teaching and learning process is sometimes boring, students are not  motivated  to  do  it  and  sometimes  they  just  keep  silent  listening  to  what  the  teacher  is  reading.  Finally,  students  are  seldom  engaged  in  cooperative  and  an interesting  activity.  Practically,  students  work    competitively    and  individually  which triggers them to give up when it deals with the difficult tasks. As a result, they end up feeling bored and unmotivated.

To  minimize  those   problems,  the  teacher   must  have   an  appropriate strategy of teaching to help the students learn English, especially in reading and to make  the  teaching  learning  process  more  interesting.  One  of  the  teaching  strategies that  is considered  useful  and it involves students’  prior  knowledge,  synthesizing    and  generalizing    cognitive    operation    is  Generating    Interaction  between    Schemata  and    Text    (GIST)    strategy,  proposed  by  Cunningham  in Wolley (2011:221).  This  strategy  is said useful  to identify  or  generate  main  ideas,  connect  the main  or  central  ideas,  eliminate  redundant and  unnecessary  information,  help  students remember  what  they  read,  and  record  a summary of the material they just read.  

Cunningham  stated  that  a  GIST  (Generating  Interactions  between Schemata  and  Text)  is  a  summarizing  strategy  used  to  assist  students’ comprehension  and  summary  writing  skills.  Students  use  higher-order  thinking skills  to  analyze  and  synthesize  what  they  have  read.  The  summary  is  usually limited to no more than fifteen words; therefore, the students must analyze ways to  delete  non-essential  information  and  use  their  own  words  to  summarize  the main  idea  or  “the  gist”  of  the  selection.   Summarizing  requires  students  to determine  what  is  important  in  what  they  are  reading,  to  condense  this information, and to put it into their own words.  Thus, the meaning may be vary from one  reader  to  another.  It  is  believed  that  by having a good strategy in reading the students are facilitated to meet  their  own  individual  needs and they are  given more chances to actively construct their own meaning. Because many problem  in  reading  comprehension  exactly  in  descriptive  text  at  seventh  grade





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