Concept of Speaking

Concept of Speaking
1.      Definition of Speaking
Thornbury and Slade (2006: 17) defined speaking as  a  social,  multi-sensory  speech  event,  whose  topic  is  unpredictable.  Speaking  is  social,  in  the sense that it establishes rapport and mutual agreement, maintains and modifies social identity, and involves interpersonal skills. This social  element  is  expressed  through  wishes,  feelings,  attitudes, opinions  and  judgments,  which  can  clash  with  the  formal  nature  of  the classroom when teaching speaking
Gumperz (1999: 98) concluded  speaking  is  cooperatively  constructed which is based on contributions, assumptions, expectations, and interpretations of the participants‘ utterance. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information Thornbury, which  Speaking  is  also  a  multi-sensory  activity  because  it  involves  paralinguistic  features  such  as  eye-contact,  facial  expressions,  body language, tempo, pauses, voice quality changes, and pitch variation affect  conversational  flow.  It seems  that  culture  is  integral  in  how speaking  is  constructed  which  has  implications  for  how  English  speaking  is taught and learned.
2.      Function of Speaking
What  are  some  of  the  reasons  why  speaking  tests  seem  so  challenging?  One reason  is  that  the  nature  of  the  speaking  skill  itself  is  not  usually  well  defined. Understandably  then,  there  is  some  disagreement  on  just  what  criteria  to  choose  in evaluating  oral  communication.  Grammar,  vocabulary,  and  pronunciation  are  often named as ingredients. But matters such as fluency  and appropriateness of expression are usually regarded as equally important. Even when a speaking criterion like fluency is  widely  agreed  upon,  there  is  some  question  about  how  to  test  it.  In  brief,  the elements  of  speaking  are  numerous  and  not  always  easy  to  identify.  Also  there  isn‘t very wide agreement on how to weight each factor. Other cocern related to the testing of speaking include how to get students to speak and how to evaluate so many things at once. There is also the practical problem of having to test each student individually.
One  way  that  we  can  simplify  the  task  of  evaluating  spoken  language  is  to limit  the  range  of  speaking  activities  tested.  It  is  suggested  that  teachers  be  cautious about  using  formal  tests  of  speaking  at  very  early  stages  of  instruction.  Instead,  the relatively  nonthreatening  limited-response  measures  that  follow  are  recommended (Harold, 1983: 148).
3.      Purpose of Speaking.
Studying English without  practice speaking is useless. A part of communication speaking is regarded more representing what the speaker wants to say. Through speaking, one can express their minds, ideas and thought freely  and spontaneously. To most people, mastering the art of speaking is the single most important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language (Fauziati, Endang. 2002: 20).
Speaking is making use words in  an ordinary voice, uttering words, knowing and being able to  use language; expressing oneself in words; making speech. While skill is the ability to do something well. Therefore, the writer can infer that speaking is the ability to make use of words or a language to express oneself in an ordinary voice. In short, the speaking skill is the ability to perform the linguistics knowledge in actual communication. The ability functions to express our ideas, feeling, thoughts, and need orally (Hornby, A.S. 1995: 254)
Syakur. (1987: 18) Speaking is also one of the language arts that is most frequently used by people all over the world. The art of speaking is very complex. It requires the simultaneous use of the number of abilities which often develop at different rates. Generally, there are at least four components of speaking skill concerned with comprehension, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and fluency

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