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USING GROUP WORK TO IMPROVE CHILDREN’S SPEAKING ABILITY ( A QUASI EXPERIMENTAL)



CHAPTER I

In this chapter, the paper will elaborate the background of the study. It will discuss how indonesian students having problem in speaking English because of lack of interaction. The description of the problem will emphasize the benefits of using group project to improve children speaking ability.
 A.   Background
Laidlaw, (2006) states that language is a means of communication. Language can be a medium for giving information and it reflects on various things as well. Speaking is so importantin acquiring and using a language, and language-competence covers so many aspects. Phonetics, both theory and practice constitutes the basis of speaking above. Speaking is a tool of communication thatis very easy to understand the meaning if the speaking is smooth, but if the speaking is disjointed and mispronounced, others might not understand the meaning. It is analogous to a fish out of water. Pronunciation is the foundation of speaking. Good pronunciation may make the communication easier and more relaxed and thus more successful,but poor pronunciation can never facilitate effective communication. If they didn't know how to pronounce each word or sentence in the right way, this children was sure to lead to a failure of communication
English has been introduced in indonesia to elementary school children. Partly, it is because of the rapidly developing technology of the English speaking countries and the fact that there are 300 million native speakers of English and over 250 million of non-native speakers who use English in the world (Broughton et al, 1980). The second reason is that the assumption that younger learners have advantages in learning second language more successfully than adult, Hence, indonesian primary students need to master speaking English.
To master speaking English, those students need to have an opportunity to use the language actively. Children can be active when they have the opportunities in practising the language with others. Orther people, Vygotsky (1962) cited in Cameron (2001) states, play important roles in helping children to learn, bringing objects and ideas to their attention, talking while playing and about playing, reading stories, and asking questions. Children learn by interacting with other people through speaking, therefore, interaction is essential for children in learning English.
Children need to interact both with their teacher and their classmates. Through interacting with their teacher and classmates, they would possibly get feedbacks. Feedbacks are essential in learning because it lets students know what has been learned and what has not yet been understood and it also possibly gives students motivation (Wragg, 2001). However, many indonesian teachers tend to give feedback in discouraging way such as pointing out mistakes in front of the classroom. Therefore, when students interact with their teacher, many indonesian students are afraid or shy to say words in English. When students speak in front of the class, they have a feeling of being judged by their teacher. Therefore, beacuse many indonesian teachers tend to give feedback in discouraging way, feedback needed to be delivered in supportive ways.
In terms of supportive ways, Moon (2005) states that there are three support types teacherscan provide their students which are language, techniques/resources, and children themselves. Teachers should adjust their language to children’s level of language. Teachers also should give appropriate tecniques which support children to be confident in speaking English. One of the tecniques is grouping which is related by the third support that is children themselves. Children can support each other in groups through three ways: 1). By watching other children, 2). By listening to and getting help from other children, and 3). By practising with other children (Moon , 2005). Therefore, working in small groups is a way to make children be more confident in speaking English.
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