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Brief History of Internet


Brief History of Internet
The Internet had its roots during the 1960's as a project of the United States government's Department of Defense, to create a non-centralized network. This project was called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), created by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency established in 1969 to provide a secure and survivable communications network for organizations engaged in defense-related research.
In order to make the network more global a new sophisticated and standard protocol was needed. They developed IP (Internet Protocol) technology which defined how electronic messages were packaged, addressed, and sent over the network. The standard protocol was invented in 1977 and was called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). TCP/IP allowed users to link various branches of other complex networks directly to the ARPANET, which soon came to be called the Internet.
Researchers and academics in other fields began to make use of the network, and eventually the National Science Foundation (NSF), which had created a similar and parallel network, called NSFNet, took over much of the TCP/IP technology from ARPANET and established a distributed network of networks capable of handling far greater traffic. In 1985, NSF began a program to establish Internet access across the United States. They created a backbone called the NSFNET and opened their doors to all educational facilities, academic researchers, government agencies, and international research organizations. By the 1990's the Internet experienced explosive growth. It is estimated that the number of computers connected to the Internet was doubling every year.
Businesses rapidly realized that, by making effective use of the Internet they could tune their operations and offer new and better services to their customers, so they started spending vast amounts of money to develop and enhance the Internet. This generated violent competition among the communications carriers and hardware and software suppliers to meet this demand. The result is that bandwidth (i.e., the information carrying capacity of communications lines) on the Internet has increased tremendously and costs have dropped. It is widely believed that the Internet has played a significant role in the economic success.
The World Wide Web (WWW) allows computer users to position and view multimedia-based documents (i.e., documents with text, graphics, animations, audios and/or videos) on almost any subject. Even though the Internet was developed more than three decades ago, the introduction of the WWW was a relatively recent event. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) developed the World Wide Web and several communication protocols that form the backbone of the WWW.
The Internet and the World Wide Web will surely be listed among the most significant and profound creations of humankind. In the past, most computer applications ran on stand alone computers. (i.e., computers that were not connected to one another) Today’s applications can be written to communicate among the world’s hundreds of millions of computers. The Internet makes our work easier by mixing computing and communications technologies. It makes information immediately and conveniently accessible worldwide. It makes it possible for individuals and small businesses to get worldwide contact.

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