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ROLE, AUDIENCE, FORMAT AND TOPIC (RAFT) STRATEGY IN READING COMPREHENSION


ROLE, AUDIENCE, FORMAT AND TOPIC (RAFT) STRATEGY IN READING COMPREHENSION
The Definition of Role, Audience, Format and Topic (RAFT) Strategy
            RAFT is an acronym: Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. This strategy is adapted from ideas developed by Doug Buehl in 1995. Based on Evershed.J (1996: 27) This is a great strategy that integrates reading and writing in a non-traditional way.  It asks that students take what they have read and create a new product that illustrates their depth of understanding; it may be used with fiction or nonfiction texts.  The format is incredibly flexible and offers limitless opportunities for creativity for both you and your students
            Katz (2010: 65) RAFT is an engaging, high level strategy that encourages  writing across the curriculum and a way to encourage students to assume a role, consider their audience, write in a particular format and examine a topic from a relevant perspective
According to Billmeyer and Martin (1998: 1) This strategy encourages creative thinking and motivates students to demonstrate understanding in a nontraditional yet informational written format. The student has a role to play and as they think in that role, they have to talk to a given audience using the format noted on the topic listed. This strategy forces students to process information rather than just write answers to questions
Vandevanter in Houston (2010:10) defines RAFT is a writing-to-learn strategy that allows students to process  information by writing about it in a non-traditional format.where ROLE of the writer:  Who are you?, AUDIENCE: To whom is this written?,FORMAT:  What form will it take? and TOPIC:  What is the subject of this writing?
            The RAFT strategy provides an easy, meaningful way to incorporate literacy skill into classroom. RAFT is an effective way to differentiate instruction by providing tiered activities, projects on the same text or topic can be adjusted according to students’ achievement levels, English proficiency, and interest. 
Procedure of Role, Audience, Format and Topic (RAFT) Strategy
Herczog and Porter (2010: 48) To use this strategy students choose an appropriate topic, such as one from the earlier Evaluate, Take, and Defend a Position strategy or one from the activities listed after each lesson in the We the People text. Students examine the topic (the T in the acronym) by considering each part of RAFT before they write about or otherwise develop the topic.
Evershed (1996: 27) RAFT papers are simply a way to think about the four main things that all writers have to consider:
a)        Role of the Writer
Who are you as the writer? Are you Abraham Lincoln? A warrior? A homeless person? An auto mechanic? The endangered snail darter? 
b)        Audience
To whom are you writing? Is your audience the American people? A friend? Your teacher? Readers of a newspaper? A local bank?  
c)        Format
What form will the writing take? Is it a letter? A classified ad? A speech? A poem? 
d)       Topic
What's the subject or the point of this piece? Is it to persuade a goddess to spare your life? To plead for a re-test? To call for stricter regulations on logging?
In addition Houston (2010:9) defines that the procedure of RAFT as follows:
a)      Make a chart.
b)      Analyze the important ideas or information that students need to learn.
c)      Brainstorm possible roles, format and audiences.
d)     Use a strong verb in assigning the topic (e.g. persuade, plead, demand).
e)      Ask students to write their paper using the Role, etc.
Related or same procedure in Billmeyer and Martin (1998: 1) follows:
a)      Using your essential questions, analyze the important ideas or information you want students to learn. Consider how writing might enhance student’ understanding of a topic. The topic can be a creative title or stated in general terms, as long as it is clear to the student the goal of the assignment.  
b)      Brainstorm possible roles students could assume in their writing. For example, a student in auto class could imagine he was a spark plug and describe what occurs when an engine starts.
c)      Next, decide the audience for this communication. Using that audience,  determine the writing format. For example, the spark plug could be writing in the format of a diary to be read by new spark plugs just placed in cars.
d)     Explain RAFT to the students and list the role, audience, format, and topic for writing. You may want to choose different roles from which they can choose based on the same knowledge, reading, or concept.

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