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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DIRECT METHOD TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY (A Classroom Action Research)



THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DIRECT METHOD TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY 
(A Classroom Action Research)
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
 A.  Background of the Study
Human being needs each other. As a social culture, human needs to communicate with  language  as  a  means  of  communication  with  other  people.  Language  is  used  by people to express and receive some information, message, emotions and so on. There are  many kinds of languages used by people such as English, Dutch, India, French, Spanish, Arab, Indonesia, etc. It depends on where the people live. English is a foreign language in Indonesia.
One  of  the  ways  of  communication  is    through  speaking.  For  most  people, mastering ―the art‖ of speaking is the single most important aspect of learning a second or  foreign  language,  and  success  is  measured  in  terms  of  the  ability  to  carry  out  a conversation in the language (Fauziati, 2008: 126). 
Nowadays English is an important language. It is the key to international currency of  technology,  science,  as  well  as  commerce.  As  an  international  language,  English  has gained its popularity all over
the world including Indonesia. In the past English was only taught in high school. In current years, the teaching of English is expanding into primary schools.
English consists of four basic skills that students must master, they are speaking, writing,  reading  and  listening.  The  first  skill  is  speaking,  it  controls  to  learn  and  to develop  of  an  individual‘s  personality.  The  second  one  is  writing,  it  is  a  partial representation of units of language expression. This is the chief means by which thought, ideas and knowledge are preserved. The third is reading, it is to grasp language patterns from  their  written  representation.  The  fourth  is  listening;  through  listening,  we  build knowledge by taking in new information (Robert Lado, 1983: 143).
Speaking  is  in  many  ways  an  undervalued  skill.  Perhaps  this  is  because  we  can almost all speak, and so take the skill too much for granted. Speaking is often thought of as a popular form of expression which uses the unprestigious colloquial register: literary skills  are  on  the  whole  more  prized.  The  fact  that  speaking  is  transient  and  improvised, and can therefore be viewed as facile, superficial, or glib (Bygate, 1987: 1 ). Speaking  is,  however,  a  skill  which  deserves  attention  every  bit  as  much  as literary skills, in both first and second languages. It is also a medium through which many languages  is  learnt,  and  which  for  many  is  particularly  conducive  for  learning.  Perhaps, then, the teaching of speaking merits more thought (Bygate, 1987: 1 ).
Mastering speaking is not easy. The main problem faced by the students of senior high school when they speak is the difficulty in composing the words or sentences. When they  are  speaking,  they  constantly  estimate  the  listener,  knowledge  and  assumption,  in order  to  select  the  language  that  will  be  interpreted  in  accordance  with  our  intended meaning (Littlewood, 1984: 3).
Students  are  taught  by  using  direct  method  needs  associate  the  meaning,  the spelling  and  the  target  language  directly.  To  do  this,  the  teacher  introduces  new  target language words or???????????????????????????



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