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Concept of Cohesive Devices

 Concept of Cohesive Devices

Cohesive devices is when a word or phrase is linked together in a sentence or article. There are numerous words that are considered cohesive devices in English language. Some examples of cohesive devices for the English are, however, in conclusion, basically, as it turns out, at last, eventually, after all, rarely, normally, at first, often, further, and firstly. Cohesive devices is important in writing especially in writing descriptive paragraph because It make the sentences or paragraph linked together and make easy to read and more understanding by the reader. Make the students know what is cohesive devices and the types of cohesive devices. Cohesive devices is a part of discourse analysis. Discourse is generally seen as “language in use”.

Johnson (2002: 2) defines discourse as “actual instances of communication in the medium of language”. Johnson defines discourse as an institutionalized way of speaking that determines not only what we say and how we say it, but also what we do not say which can be inferred from what we say. Discourse analysis is generally viewed as language above the sentence or the clause. It studies meaning in text, paragraph, and conversation. Brown and Yule (1983:27) in their book explain that discourse analysis is investigating the use of language in context by a speaker / writer, he is more cincerned with the relationship between the speaker and utterance, on the particular occasion of use, than with the potential relationship of one sentence to another, regaedless of their use. Discourse analysis analyze conversation and written discourse. Discourse analysis is concerned not only with complex utterances by one speker, but more frequently with the turn-taking interaction between two or more, and with the linguistic rules and conventio.ns that are taken to be in play and governing such discourse in their given context. The overall goal of any discourse analysis is to explain how language users construct and interpret meaning in discourse. In summarize, discourse analysis is the study which concerning at how sentences are build up and as discourse analysis we can tell about contextualize and grammatical items.

Each of the examples can be used to start a sentence to link together the sentence or story Example :

I figured I could charm the judges and get the job anyway. Plus, I had an edge, because I was the only kid trying out who could read a cue card.

Until the mid 1970s, cohesion and coherence were often used interchangeably, both referring either to a kind of vague sense of wholeness or to a more specific and Hasan (1976) influenced scholars and researchers in rhetoric and composition so that, by the early 1980s, the two terms were distinguished. Cohesion is now understood to be a textual quality, attained through the use of grammatical and lexical elements that enable readers to perceive semantic relationships within and between sentences. Coherence refers to the overall consistency of a discourse, its purpose, voice, content, style, form, and so on and it is in part determined by readers’ perceptions of texts, dependent not only on linguistic and contextual information in the texts but also on readers’ abilities to draw upon other kinds of knowledge, such as cultural and intertextual knowledge. Coherence and cohesions are two main features of text. Analysis in these areas can be applied to the instruction of English writing because they play an important role in writing. Coherence, including both sentence and paragraph coherence, lies in the deep structure of a text, and refers to the complex non linier sequences of words, sentences or paragraph.

According to Roy Peter Clark (2006) “The big parts of a story should stick together, but the small parts need some stickum as well. When the big parts fit, we call that good feeling coherence, when sentences connect, we call it cohesion”.

According to Wayne C. Booth and Marshall W. Gregory (1987) cohesion is achieved when writers connect their organized parts with sufficiently clear and numerous signals, like the words ‘finally, thus, however’ to make the development of thier cases intelligible and to lead the reader safely along the emerging lines of their arguments.

Writing must have not only coherence, an effective design, but cohesion, an explicit set of ‘hooks’ and ‘ties’ that ensure a reader’s interest and comprehension. Coherence is the kind of ‘holding together’ that a good design will give any discourse, whether written or spoken. Cohesion is the result of giving readers the right kind of explicit help in figuring out the design. Cohesion gives readers the clues for discovering coherence.

According to Chan (2010) in Halliday and Hasan’s definition, coherence refers to the elements internal to the text, consisting of cohesion and register. A text is passage of discourse which is coherent in these two regards, it is coherent with respect to the context of situation and therfore consistent in register, and it is coherent with respect to itself and there fore cohesive. In other words, cohesion as a major characteristic of coherence with regard to the linguistic properties of the language, gives a sequence of sentences a coherent texture. According to Halliday and Hasan’s cohesion theory (in Chan: 2010), cohesion, as the major characteristic of coherence covering linguistic properties of the language, gives a sequence of sentences a coherent texture. Cohesion shows how semantic relationships are set up by lexical and syntactic features. Such overt lexical and syntactic features are called cohesive device, which signal the relationship among sentences. To provide a framework for studying and judging the cohesion and coherence writing, five different types of cohesive ties (reference, ellipsis, subtitution, conjunction, and lexical cohesion). They contended that through analyzing the usage of cohesive device, one could evaluate or assess writing quality from the perspective of coherence. According to Sena (2010) cohesive device are typically single words or phrases that basically make the text hang together. By analogy, they are much like the seams in our clothing which keep items like jakcets and trousers together. There are two types of lexical cohesion , reiteration (repetition, synonymy, hyponymy, metonymy, and antonymy) and collocation.

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