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Concept of Code Switching

 Concept of Code Switching

Sagala and Rezeki (2018) Code switching is used to fulfill sense of the speaker. When the speaker cannot convey his or her message by using one language, the speaker needs to change the language to be more understood. Code switching can occur in the daily conversation which is used by the speakers and it can occur between the sentences in the conversation and can occurs within the sentences. Code switching is one form of language use by bilinguals. The use of more than one language by choosing one of language code adjusted to the circumstances. In other words, code switching in the phenomenon of language use because of the situation changing. In addition, code switching not only occurs among the languages, but also among the kinds or language styles in one language such as code switching between Indonesia and English.

Wardhaugh (2006:101) The particular dialect or language that a person chooses to use on any occasion is a code, a system used for communication between two or more partics. Wardhaugh also indicated that is unusual for a speaker to have command of, or use, only one such code or system. Command of only a single variety of language, whether it be a dialect, style, or register, would appear to be an extremely rare phenomenon, one likely to occasion comment.

Most speakers command several varieties of any language they speak, and bilingualism, even multilingualism. People are usually required to select a particular code whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to mix codes even within sometimes very short utterances and therby create a new code in a process known as code switching. Code switching also called code mixing can occur in convversation between speakers’ turns or within a single speakers’ turn. In the latter case it can occur between sentences intersentially or within a single sentence intra sententially. Code switching can arise from individual choice or be used a major identity marker for a group of speakers who must deal with more than one language in their common pursuits. Gal in Wardhaugh (2006:101) Code switching is a conversational strategy used to establish, cross or destroy group boundaries, to create, evoke or change interpersonal relations with their rights and obligations.

Numan and Carter in Ansar (2017) Code switching is a phenomenon of siwtching from one language to another in the same discourse. From this definition, “discourse” will be handled as the students’ amd teachers’ naturally occuring language use in classroom. Additionally., the languages between which alternation is performed are the native language of the students, and the foreign language that students are expected to gain competence in.

Wardhaugh (2006:104) There are two kinds of code switching: situational and metaphorical. Situational code switching occurs when the languages used change according to the situations in which the conversants find themselves: they speak one language in one situation and another in a different one. No topic change involved. When a change of topic requires a change in the language used we have metaphorical code switching. The interesting point here is that some topics may be discussed in either code, but the choice of code adds a distinct flavor to what is said about the topic. The choice encodes certain social values.

Linguists have found it very difficult to explain precisely when, linguistically and socially, code switching occurs what all the constrains are. However, there is a broad agreement about the general principles that are involved. Dell in Jendra (2010:74) Code switching has become a common term for alternative use of two or more language, or variaties of language, or even speech styles. Petro in Jendra (2010:74) Code switching is the use of more than one language by communication in the execution of a speech act.

Gumperz in Wardhaugh (2006:106) Code switching is not a uniform phenomenon. The norms vary from group to group, even within what might be regarded as a single community. Ball (2005:70) Code switching can and does occur whenever more than one linguistic system is available to the participants in a speech situation. In other words, bilingual or multilingual people in bilingual will code switch.

From the theory of some expert above it can be concluded that code switching is a linguistics term of the use one language or more than two languages variety in conversation. Code switching also called code mixing when the speaker need to use the code to make a formal or informal conversation.




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