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Classroom Interaction

 Classroom Interaction

Classroom interaction is collaborative exchange of thought, feeling, or ideas between two or more people resulting in reciprocal effect on each other in other ways the action performed by the teacher and the students during instruction interrelated. The New Oxford Dictionary of English defines the noun interaction as a reciprocal action or influence. Therefore interaction is more than action followed by reaction. It includes acting reciprocally, acting upon each other.

One of the purposes of learning language is for communication, so there are some ways for keeping students’ opportunities to the exposure of the target language: ”the teacher should speak English for the majority of the time so that the students are constantly exposure to how English sounds and what it feels like” (Harmer, 2007: 179). For organizing the lesson clearly, teacher have to able to choose the appropriate words and clear examples or ilustralions, besides, presenting the information more than once may increase students’ understanding of certain topic.

In other hands, classes are sometimes criticized because there is too much TTT(Teacher Talking Time) and not enough STT (Student Talking Time). Overuse of TTT is inappropriate because the more a teacher talks, the less chance for students to practice their own speaking, and it is the students who need practice, not the teacher. For the reasons, a good teacher maximize STT and minimize TTT (Harmer,2007: 38).

According to Chaudron (1998:10) classroom interaction covers classroom behaviors such as turn-taking, questioning and answering, negotiation of meaning and feedback. In addition, Brown (2001: 165) describes the term of interaction as the heart of communication, it is what communication is all about. Interaction occurs as long as people are communicating each other and giving action and receiving the reaction in one another anywhere and anytime, including in the classroom setting. Thus, Interaction between students and teacher is fundamental to the learning process.

Brown (2005,69) emphasized that the most important key to create an interactive language classroom is the initation of interaction by the teacher. One of the best ways to develo the teacher’s role as an initiator sustainer of interaction is to develop a reportaire of questioning strategies. He also asserts that the appropriate questioning in an interactive classroom can fulfill a number of different functions as presented below.

a.       Teacher’s questions give students as input and opportunity to produce languagecomfortably without having to risk initiating language themselves.

b.      Teacher’s questions can serve to initiate a chain reaction of student interaction among them.

c.       Teacher’s question give the instructor immediate feedback about the students’ comprehension.

d.      Teacher’s question provide students with opportunites to find out what they think by hearing what they say.

Those types of question are:

a.       Knowledge question: eliciting factual answer, testing recall and recognition of information.

b.      Comprehension question: interpreting, extra polating.

c.       Application questions: applying information heard or read to new situations.

d.      Inference question: forming conclusion that are not directly stated in instructional materials.

e.       Analysis questions: breaking down into parts, relating parts to the whole

f.       Synthesis questions, combining elements into a new pattern.

g.      Evaluation questions, making a judgment of good and bad, right or wrong, according to some set of criteria, and stating why.

From the statements above we know that interaction in the classroom is fundamental, because without it teaching learning process in the classroom will not exist. A good interaction will make messages transmission success and create a good interpersonal relationship between the teacher and students, so the students achievement in language acquisition can be increased. Finally it can be conclude that basically interaction is a systematic and collaborative activity that requires both the addressor and addressee to exchange ideas or message and negotiate their meaning either by using verbal or non-verbal meaning.

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