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Type of Teacher Talk

 Type of Teacher Talk

The talk that a teacher does in the teaching-learning process wass essential to promote communication in the classroom. Hence, the language teacher uses to speak should be understandable for students and able to create a pleasant learning atmosphere. Flander (1989,  cited  in  Walsh  2006)  divides  teacher  talk  into  seven  types  (accepts  or  deals with  feelings,  praises  and  encourages,  accepts  or  uses  ideas  of  students,  asks questions,  lectures,  gives  direction,  and  criticizes  or  uses  authority),  students  talk  in three types (response and initiation), and also silence (period of silence or confusion) These are as follows:

1.      Indirect Influence 

a.       Deals with feeling: in a nonthreatening way, accepting,discussing, referring to, or  communicating  an  understanding  of  the  past,  present,  or  future  sense  of students.

b.      Praise or encourages: Praising, complimenting, and telling students why what they have said or done is valued. Encouraging students to give their opinion or ideas,  trying  to  provide  them  with  confidence,  confirming  that  answers  are correct or not.  b.1)  Jokes:  Intentional  joking,  kidding,  making  funs,  attemptingto  be humorous,  providing  the  joking  is  not  at  anyone‘s  expense  (Unintentional humor is not included in this category).

c.       Uses  ideas  of  students:  Clarifying,  using,  interpreting,  andsummarizing  the opinions  of  students.  The  ideas  must  be  rephrased  by  the  teacher  but  still recognized as being student contributions. c.1)  Repeats  student  response  verbatim:  Repeating  the  exactwords  of  students after they participate.

d.      Asks a question: Asking questions to which the answer isanticipated. (Rhetorical questions are not included in this category).

2.      Direct Influence 

a.       Gives  information:  Giving  information,  facts,  own  opinions,  or  ideas:  lecturing or asking rhetorical questions. a.1)Correctstudent‘s answer without rejections: Telling students who have made a mistake  of  their  response  without  using  words  or  intonations  which communicate  criticism.  Gives  directions:  Giving  directions,  request,  or commands  that  students  are  expected  to  follow,  directing  various  drills, facilitating either whole-class and small-group activity.

b.      Criticizes  student  behavior:  Rejecting  the  inappropriate  behavior  of  students, trying to change the non-acceptable behavior, communicating anger, displeasure, annoyance, and also dissatisfaction with what students are doing.

c.       Criticizes student’s response: informing  the  student  his  or  her answer  is  not correct  or  acceptable  and  communicating  criticism,  displeasure,  annoyance, rejection by word or intonation.




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