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ENGLISH DISCOURSE MARKERS USED IN THE PROCEDURE TEXT WRITTEN BY SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

 ENGLISH DISCOURSE MARKERS USED IN THE PROCEDURE TEXT WRITTEN BY SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.    The Background of the Study

Language is the primary source of communication. It is one of the main ways to  communicate  and  interact  with  other  people  around  us  to  express  our  ideas. English as an international language is not new to indonesian students because it is a compulsory subject that is taught in the schools until the college level. However, there are many  Indonesian students who cannot use English well, they still make mistakes in using English both spoken and written.

Today, most of the schools in Indonesian adopt a curriculum of 2013. Even though it is a new curriculum, the content of the curriculum  for teaching English Language is similar that students have to be able to master four basic skills namely: Listening,  Speaking,  Reading  and  Writing.  From  those  skills,  it  is  known  that Listening and reading are part of Receptive skills while speaking and writing are known as the Productive skills (Mundhe, 2015).

However,  the  current  curriculum  in  Indonesia  expect  students  to  be  more active  and  productive  in  learning  process.  For  this  reason,  both  of  students  and English Language teachers must be able to increase their knowledge to achieve the four  basic  skills  in  the  learning  process.  Among  those  skills,  most  of  students consider  that  writing  is  the  most  difficult  skill  because  they  have  to  apply  their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary of writing to express their ideas. As the productive  skills,  writing  competence  becomes  one  of  important  factors  to  built  their background knowledge of English. 

Based on the researcher’s observation in three schools, there were a lot of students who less interested in learning the productive skills. But the most permanent problem from the productive skills is writing. The students were lazy to write.  Carrol  (1990)  in  Huy  (2015)  says  that  definition  of  writing  skill  is  one  of most relatively permanent record of information, opinion, beliefs, argument, theory, etc. Therefore, writing becomes one of language skills that must to be mastered by students  in  learning  English  process  as  a  Foreign  Language.  In  the  International English Examination, writing test is one of the skills that is marked higher.

Chow  (2007)  in  Yunus  (2014)  argues  writing  as  an  essential  learning  tool which helps students to comprehend the ideas and concepts better. It will be showed as coherence and cohesion of the text because they are elements that determine “ the paragraph good or not “. To make the ideas clearly into the paragraphs certainly students write clues to express what they meant in the next segment. This means, students need to use lexical expression in order to get clear structure. The lexical expression used by students is Discourse Markers, where students usually use them in  their  writing  to  directing  their  ideas  well.  The  use  of  discourse  markers  will connect the transition by suitable words to be cohesive. Discourse Markers are not only conjunction, but also adverb and prepositional phrase.

Most of the students need to choose the correct Discourse Markers  in their writing  so  the  paragraphs  in  their  writing  were  cohesive.  Some  other  previous research  stated  that  it  is  not  an  easy  work  for  some  students  to  create  the  text cohesively  because  there  were  some  misuse  and  inappropriate  discourse  markers that they  used. This  fact shows that there was  a  possibility of crucial problem in using discourse markers may appear in the school. In relating the using of Discourse Markers , it was supposed to be the increasing of using them by students. Therefore, it is important to know how students at the school use the discourse markers to make their writing be cohesive. 

Based on the explanation above, the researcher attempts to analyze about the Discourse Markers on the students’ text written based on the types, how the students use the types and then the reason why students use the types of Discourse Markers.

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