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Types of Speaking

Types of Speaking

Marriam, Azeer & Dogar (2011: 38-39) Many  language  learners  regard  speaking  ability  as  the  measure  of  knowing  a  language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to  read,  write,  or  comprehend  oral  language.  They  regard  speaking  as  the  most  important  skill they  can  acquire,  and  they  assess  their  progress  in  terms  of  their  accomplishments  in  spoken communication. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:

a.       Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation

b.      Functions  (transaction  and  interaction):  Knowing  when  clarity  of  message  is  essential (transaction/information  exchange)  and  when  precise  understanding  is  not  required (interaction/relationship building)

c.       Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers,  relative  roles  of  participants):  Understanding  how  to  take  into  account  who  is speaking to whom. in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.

In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this  body  of  knowledge  by  providing  authentic  practice  that  prepares  students  for  real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.

In  communicative  output,  the  learners'  main  purpose  is  to  complete  a  task,  such  as obtaining information, developing a travel plan, or creating a video. To complete the task, they may use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they also may draw on any other vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies that they know.  In communicative output activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across. Accuracy is not a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message.

All of those components will produce speech that can be understood in communication, good pronunciation, grammatically knowledge, vocabularies mastery, comprehension in meaning and fluency are needed in building a speech. However it must be remembered that language and speech are meant for communication. It is not enough for students to learn words, phrases and grammatical only. They have to produce speech in their daily communication. Learning language is about practicing and generating speech. Students need to express their meaning by doing much practice in speaking.

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