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Kinds Strategy of Speech Act

Kinds Strategy of Speech Act.

K√∂der (2016: 18) Speech reports are traditionally divided into two fundamentally different types: direct speech and indirect speech. Linguists typically consider direct speech a  form of quotation (i.e., a  form of reference to linguistic objects like sentences or utterances) and indirect speech an intensional clausal embedding, syntactically and semantically on a par with attitude as-criptions (believes that) and modal operators (it is possible that)

1.      Direct Speech Act

Directive  speech  acts  according  to  Searle  (1979:  13)  asserts  that the illocutionary point of these consists in the fact that they  are attempts (of  varying degrees,  and  hence, more  precisely,  they  are  determinates  of  the  determinable which  includes  attempting)  by  the  speaker  to  get  the  hearer to  do  something the speakers  express  what  they  want.  They  are commands, orders, requests, and suggestions.

Direct speech act generally is the syntactic form of  the  utterance  reflects  the direct illocutionary  act. This utterance is said directly without  third person.  The form is used  imperative  sentence  usually.  An example, a mother asked to the sister,” Sweep the floor, dear!” from the sentence was clear that the mother asked or command to her child to sweep the floor.

Direct  speech  act  is  where  the  utterance  said  appropriate  with  the function of the sentence. Direct speech act such as a declarative sentences is  to  informing  something.  For  example  utterance  “move out that way!” this utterance said by a speaker to hearer to move from his place. It is clear and  appropriate  that  the  speaker  gives  command  to  the  hearer. Performatives verb is one of form direct speech act. The verbs that specify the  illocutionary  acts  being  performed  or  the  type  of  verbs  used  to  make performative  utterances  are  called  performatives  verb.  In  other  word, performative verb is verb where saying it or writing it performs the action itself. 

The  three  characteristics  of  performative  verb  is  the  first, performative verbs are verbs that describe actions carried out by speakers, the  second  is  they  are  used  in  1st  person  singular,  simple  present, indicative,  and  active,  and  the  last  is  they  can  be  combined  with  hereby. The example of performative verb is promise, request, name, order, warn, predict, declare or refuse, ask, etc.

In general the syntactic form of an utterance reflects the direct illocutionary act. The following are the examples:

a.       The moon is the satellite of the earth (declarative)

b.      Who is that woman? (interrogative) 

c.       Wash the car! (imperative)

In each of these examples, the syntactic form of the utterance matches the direct illocutionary act. In (1) a  directive form is used to make a statement; in (2) an interrogative form is used to ask a question and in (3) an imperative form is used to  give an order or make request. Thus the direct speech act (or direct illocutionary act) is the one that matches the syntactic form of the utterances, in other word; direct speech act means that whenever we use language as a means of bringing about some end, this does not imply some chain of actions.

 

2.      Indirect Speech Act

Altikriti (2011: 1376) In indirect speech acts the speaker communicates to the hearer more than  he actually says by way  of  relying  on  their  mutually  shared  background  information,  both  linguistic  and  nonlinguistic,  together  with  the general powers of rationality  and inference on the part of the  hearer.

Indirect speech acts  is a  syntactic  form of an utterance does  not reflect any  indirect  illocutionary  act  associated  with  it  or  indirect speech  act  is  performed  indirectly  by  way  of  performing  the literal illocutionary act. Yule’s  opinion  (1996:55),  he  said  that  indirect sentence has relationship between a structure and a function of the  utterance,  it  s  called  indirect  speech  act.  To  make  request sentences can use interrogative structure.

Indirect speech acts  are  generally  considered more polite  that direct speech  act  (Yule,  1996:  56).  In  the  theory  of  speech  acts  Searle  has introduced the notion of an indirect speech act. In indirect speech acts the speaker communicates to the hearer more than he actually says by way of relying on their mutual shared background information, together of general powers of rationality and inference of the part of the hearer (Searle 1976). Imperatives verbs is one of indirect speech act. It performing advice, offer, suggestion,  gratitude,  and  warning.  This  is  view  examples  of  imperatives verb:

a.       Advice 

Example: 

“Don’t worry, they will be all right, as long as we are together”.

b.      Offer / Suggestion 

Example:

“Come and have breakfast, mate”, he said.

“Sit down and let’s talk, shall we?”

c.       Gratitude

Example:

“Thank you for saying that, darling,” she said and pressed her lips

to his forehead one last time.

d.      Warning 

Example:

“Watch it! You’re going off the road!”

“Careful of the wall on your right side, Nora”.

e.       Threat

  Example:

“Come! Try! I must really scold you if you don’t!”


 

3.      Indirect Speech Act

According to Amelyya (2009: 16), these are four kids of speech act based on the directness and literalness. Those are  literal and non literal, literal and direct, non literal direct, literal and indirect. Here are the types of speech acts mentioned by Nirmalasari:

a)      Literal and Direct Speech Act

Suppose you are in the classroom  and your teacher says, "Open your home". The utterance said by the teacher is literal and direct speech act. It is literal because the teacher means exactly what the words say (the eacher wants us to open the book). It is direct because the teacher uses an imperative structure to perform a  direct illocutionary act that is making a request.

b)      Literal and Indirect Speech Act

Imagine that next month is your birthday. When you father comes home you say, "I would like a new motorcycle". In this utterance you make a literal and indirect speech act. It is literal because you mean what your words say (you want a new motorcycle as your birthday gift). It is indirect since you use a declarative sentence to perform a direct illocutionary act of stating and an indirect illocutionary act of requesting.

c)      Non- Literal and Direct Speech Act

Suppose Andre and Jack take a heavy and terrible way to reach the top of a hill. Then, Andre says to jack "this is the new worse way I've ever taken". Jack responds to Andre's utterance by saying "you can say that again". Jack does not mean exactly want his words say (he does not want Andrew to repeat his statement). It is direct because Jack uses a declarative form to perform a direct illocutionary  act of making a statement (Jack agrees with Andre's comment on the way).

d)     Non-Literal and Indirect Speech Acts

For instance, you listen to a radio by turning in very loud volume then your brother comes, in and says, "Could you increase your radio volume?" this is a non literal and indirect speech act. It is non literal since your brother does not mean what his utterance says (he does not want to increase the radio volume). It is indirect because he uses on interrogative structure to perform an iilocutionary act of making a request (he wants go to decrease the radio volume).

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