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Concept of Reading (Definition and Types)

 Concept of Reading (Definition and Types)

Definition of reading

Zare (2013: 1667) Reading is a cognitive activity in It is believed that, strategic awareness and which the reader takes part in a conversation with the monitoring of the comprehension process are significantly author through the text.

Karim & Haq (2014: 473) Reading is a combination of two sub-skills micro-skills and macro-skills. Micro-skills involve processing letters, words, orthographic patterns, recognizing word classes like nouns, verbs etc. and understanding systems like tense and syntactic structures.  On  the  other  hand  macro-skills  are  mainly  concerned  with  the  comprehension  of  semantic  and pragmatic knowledge.

Based on Perfetti (2001: 280) Reading is a processes depend on the language of the reader and the writing system that encodes that language. The units of the writing system are converted into mental representations that include the units of the language system. Specifically important are the identification of words and the engagement of language and general cognitive mechanisms that assemble these words into messages. It is visual word identification that is the process most distinctive to reading. Beginning with a visual input a string of letters perceptual processes produce the activation of the grapheme units (individual and multiple letters) that constitute words.

In addition Cline, F., Johnstone, C., & King, T. (2006) defines reading as a decoding and understanding text for particular reader purposes. Readers decode written text by translating text to speech, and translating directly to meaning. To understand written text, readers engage in constructive processes to make text meaningful, which is the end goal or product.

Types of Reading

Alyousef (2005: 145) states that reading types of an English language course may include two type there are extensive and intensive reading

a.       Extensive Reading extensive reading is based on the assumption  that exposing learners to large quantities of meaningful and interesting L2 material will, in the long run, produce a beneficial effect on the learners’ command of the   L2. Some use it to refer to describe skimming  and scanning activities, others associate it to quantity of material.

b.      Intensive reading activities learners are in the main exposed to relatively short texts which are used either to exemplify specific aspects of the lexical, syntactic or discoursal system of the L2, or to provide the basis for targeted reading Strategic practice; the goal of extensive reading, on the other hand, is to ‘flood’ learners with large quantities of L2 input with few or possibly no specific tasks to perform on this material.


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