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Component of Speaking Proficiency (Fluency and Accuracy)

Component of Speaking Proficiency (Fluency and Accuracy)

Based on Iwashita (2010:33) in speaking proficiency has many component, but the researcher will focus on two object, there are fluency and accuracy.

a.    Fluency

Fluency as natural language use like the native speakers. That the ability one speaks fluently can sustain the speaker to produce continuous speech and meaning without comprehension difficulties for the listener. eventually put the fluency development into the criteria list of communicative competence for being a successful English speaker. Fluency is also used as a criterion to measure one’s speaking competence. Speaking fluently means being able to communicate one’s ideas without having to stop and think too much about what one is saying

 

Shen (2013) fluency as the ability to get across communicative intent without too much hesitation and too many pauses to cause barriers or a breakdown in communication. Fluency refers to the quality or condition of being able to speak or write a language  or  perform  an  action  smoothly,  accurately  and easily, which includes the ability to produce written and/or spoken language with ease, the ability to speak with a good but  not  necessarily  perfect  command  of  intonation,  vocabulary,  and  grammar,  the  ability  to  communicate  ideas effectively, and the ability to produce continuous speech without causing comprehension difficulties or a breakdown of communication.  In  other  words,  accuracy  emphasizes  precision  or  exactness  and  is  often  emphasized  in  formal instruction,  language  acquisition,  grammar  competence  and  grammar-translation  method,  while  fluency  describes  a level  of  proficiency  in  communication  and  is  frequently  stressed  in  procedural  skill,  expression  proficiency,  lexical phrases, social interaction, necessary  topics and discourse.  Accuracy is the basis of fluency while fluency is a further improvement of a person‘s linguistic competence and a better revelation of his/her communicative competence.

In this researcher focus on hesitation. Based on Khojastehrad (2012: 179) Hesitations are pauses of varying lengths, which are not usually left unfilled. They usually occur when a speaker finds himself/herself in a po sition where he/she lacks the words to use or strug gles with cognitive or verbal planning.

In fluency the researcher will focus on students’ hesitation, students’ speak confidently without irrelevant pauses or hesitation, however, often with making major mistakes. According to Lee (2008:23) various kinds of hesitation  such as “um”, “well”, “you know”.

In addition Rahmatian et al (2014: 107) hesitation in a foreign language is interpreted as a sign of disfluency. disfluent speech is a speech marked with long pauses which cut off the discourse into less well-defined blocks from a syntactic or conceptual point of view. Hesitation that extends beyond three seconds is the sign of a major breakdown, or even premature end to the speech. Hesitation comprises three components: beginnings, pauses, and  repetitions.

The concept of fluency as opposed to the concept of hesitation is centered over the temporal aspects of speech: as the number and duration of hesitation goes up, the speech is considered as less fluent. On a general basis, hesitation in mother tongue allows the speaker to plan his/her speech, to select words, and to articulate. The same is true for a foreign language. However, hesitation in a foreign language is interpreted as a sign of disfluency. Disfluent speech is a speech marked with long pauses which cut off the discourse into less well-defined blocks from a syntactic or conceptual point of view. Hesitation that extends beyond three seconds is the sign of a major breakdown, or even premature end to the speech. Hesitation comprises three components: beginnings, pauses, and  repetitions. Each component has sub-components. The following diagram illustrates the phenomenon of hesitation along with its components.

Erten (2012: 68) Disfluencies  are  about  silent  pauses,  fillers,  false  starts, grammatical errors and hesitations. As hesitations and disfluencies are inevitable and in fact, natural,  some  speakers  prefer  to  resort  some  filler  words  or  pause  fillers.  What  a  speaker wants to convey while using fillers may be actually a signal showing that he is in a cognitive process; in other words, he is thinking.

1)      Pauses

Silences can make or break the conversation: if two persons involved in a conversation have different ideas about the typical length of pauses, they will face problems with turn taking. One person might feel that the silences are long and awkward, while the other person might feel that there is never a silence long enough for them to take the turn. Silences occur in conver-sation for a number of reasons, for example for breathing, think-ing, word-searching and turn taking management. Of course, one may also be silent because the other person is talking. Before we go any further, we need to establish what we mean by silences, and what we mean by pauses.

2)      Fillers,

According to Santos & Alarc√≥n (2016; 192) fillers are also known as pausing or hesitation phenomena which are a commonly occurring feature of natural speech in which gaps or hesitations appear during the production of utterances. The commonest types of pauses are: silent pauses, that is to say, silent breaks between words andfilled pauses which are gaps filled by such expressions as um, er, mm. 

3)      Hesitations

Hesitations are pauses with varying length, which are not usually left unfilled. They occur when the speakers are in the need of words or when they plan their next  utterance.  Speakers  do  this  by  stretching  sounds,  repetitions  or  fillers.  As  for  another  key  concept,  disfluencies;  they  can  be  defined  as  phonema  which interrupts  the  flow  of  speech.

b.    Accuracy

Accuracy is one of the most important criteria to measure one’s linguistic ability and to shelter language users from communication breakdowns. accuracy concerns “the ability to produce grammatically correct sentence. Nevertheless, the terms accuracy seems to cover more than that. Specifically, speaking English accurately means doing without or with few errors on not only grammar but vocabulary and pronunciation, as well.

In accuracy the researcher will focus on pronounciation. According to In explantion of Shooshtari, Mehrabi & Mousavinia (2013) when  talking  about  pronunciation  in  language  learning  we  mean  the  production  and perception  of  significant  sounds  of  the  language  in  order  to  achieve  meaning  in  contexts  of language use, this comprises the production and  perception  of  segmental  sounds,  of  stressed  and  unstressed  syllables,  and  of  'speech melody', or intonation.

Based on Yates (2002) Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, stress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice  is projected (voice quality) and, in its broadest  definition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language.

Gilakjani (2012) pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, sfress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice qualify) and, in its broadest defmition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language.

In addition Laurea (2015: 8) point out the pronunciation refers to how we produce the sounds that we use to make meaning when we speak. It includes the particular consonants and vowels of  a  language  (segments),  aspects  of  speech  beyond  the  level  of  the  individual  segments,  such  as stress, timing, rhythm, intonation, phrasing, (suprasegmental aspects), and how the voice is projected (voice quality). Although we often talk about these as if they were separate, they all work together in combination  when  we  speak,  so  that  difficulties  in  one  area  may  impact  on  another,  and  it  is  the combined result that makes someone’s pronunciation easy or difficult to understand.

Shen (2013) accuracy as the  use  of  correct  forms where  utterances  do  not  contain  errors  affecting  the  phonological,  syntactic,  semantic  or  discourse  features  of  a language. accuracy refers to the ability to produce grammatically correct sentences. Accuracy is the ability to speak correctly without making serious mistakes and therefore a greater use of instant teacher's correction within a speaking activity is appropriate.

1)      Phonological

Phonemes are the smallest units of language and account for an integral part of school-age language understanding and production. Likewise, the student must listen to speech from teachers and peers during school, which requires phonological processing. The challenge for students in school becomes how phonology relates to reading and writing. Research shows that children with histories of phonological and/or speech sound disorders have more difficulties with acquiring written language skills than non-affected peers.

2)      Syntactic

Syntax is the architecture of words, phrases. and clauses toward the production of the unit known as the sentence. It is this structure that helps define the relationships between words. During the school age years. children use syntax across all four modalities of language. For listening, children must understand and derive meaning from sentences heard: in contrast, for speaking they must produce meaningful sentences for a multitude of reasons.

3)      Semantic  or  Discourse  Features

Semantics  is  the  area  of meaning.  It  might be  thought  that  semantics  is covered  by  the  areas  of  morphology  and  syntax,  but  it  is  quickly  seen  that  this level needs to be studied on its own to have a proper perspective on meaning in language.  Here  one  touches,  however,  on  practically  every  other  level  of language  as  well  as  there  exists  lexical,  grammatical,  sentence  and  utterance meaning.

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