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Aspect of Speaking Skill

Aspect of Speaking Skill

Bashir, Azeem & Dogar (2011: 38) Many  language  learners  regard  speaking  ability  as  the  measure  of  knowing  a  language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to  read,  write,  or  comprehend  oral  language.  They  regard  speaking  as  the  most  important  skill they  can  acquire,  and  they  assess  their  progress  in  terms  of  their  accomplishments  in  spoken communication. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:

1)   Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation

2)   Functions  (transaction  and  interaction):  Knowing  when  clarity  of  message  is  essential (transaction/information  exchange)  and  when  precise  understanding  is  not  required (interaction/relationship building)

3)   Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers,  relative  roles  of  participants):  Understanding  how  to  take  into  account  who  is speaking to whom. in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.

Torky (2006: 30) Speaking is defined operationally in this study as the secondary stage students' ability to express themselves orally, coherently, fluently and appropriately in a given meaningful context to serve both transactional and interactional purposed using correct pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary and adopting the pragmatic and discourse rules of the spoke language. In other words they are required to show mastery of the following sub competencies/ skills:

1)   Linguistic competence: This includes the following skills:

a)    Using intelligible pronunciation.ƒ

b)   Following grammatical rules accurately.

c)    Using relevant, adequate and appropriate range of vocabulary.

2)   Discourse competence: This includes the following skills:

a)      Structuring discourse coherently and cohesively

b)      Managing conversation and interacting effectively to keep the conversation going.

3)   Pragmatic competence: This includes the following skill:

a)      Expressing a range of functions effectively and appropriately according to the context and register.

b)      Fluency: This means speaking fluently demonstrating a reasonable rate of speech.

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