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Concept of Motivation (Definition and Importance)

 Concept of Motivation (Definition and Importance)

1.      Definition of Motivation

Barker (2005) In a general sense, motivation can be defined as the dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritized, operationalized and (successfully or unsuccessfully) acted out.

Elliot (2006) Motivation is the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior toward, positive stimuli (objects, events, possibilities), whereas avoidance motivation is the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior away from, negative stimuli (objects, events, possibilities).

Lai (2011) concludes motivation refers to reasons that underlie behavior, motivation is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure, whereas motivation is governed by reinforcement contingencies. Motivation involves a constellation of closely related beliefs, perceptions, values, interests, and actions. Motivation within individuals tends to vary across subject areas, and this domain specificity increases with age.

Graham and Weiner (1996) Definition of motivation. Motivation is the study at why people think and behave as they do. In the context of academic achievement, motivational concerns would he addressed If we were to ask, for example, why some students complete tasks despite enormous difficulty, while others give up at the slightest provocation, or why some students set such unrealistically high goals for themselves that failure is bound to occur.  Another way to capture the concept at motivation Is to think about a typical achievement behavior, such as studying for an examination, and to view it as a temporal sequence that is started, sustained, directed, and finally terminated.

 

2.      The Importance of Motivation

Ames (1990) Student  motivation  has,  for  some  time,  been  described  as one  of  the  fore most  problems  in  education.  1 It  is  certainly  one  of  the  problems  most  commonly  cited  by  teachers.  Motivation  is  important  because  it  contributes  to achievement,  but  it  is  also  important  itself  as  an  outcome.

Bernaus, Wilson & gardner (2009) motivation is the most important variable because if teachers are not motivated the whole notion of strategy use is lost. This study is unique therefore because it is one of the first that directs attention to these types of variables as they apply to the class as a whole, and, because it investigates the relationships among all of these measures.

Wieman (2013) Student motivation is probably the single most important element of learning. Learning is inherently hard work; it is pushing the brain to its limits, and thus can only happen with motivation. Highly motivated students will learn readily, and make any class fun to teach, while unmotivated students will learn very little and generally make teaching painful and frustrating. Fortunately, research shows that there is a lot an instructor can do to motivate their students to learn.

Lai (2011) Educators interested in assessing motivation in the context of classroom learning will need to identify or design tasks with characteristics designed to optimize the observing students’ motivation. An important point to note is that because the expression of motivation is so strongly related to the classroom assessment environment (through self-efficacy, goals, attributions, and the effect of evaluation on students’ willingness to approach challenging tasks), suggestions for measuring or assessing student motivation tend to mirror the suggestions for fostering motivation in the classroom. In other words, many of the recommendations for assessing motivation described below are intended to help remove the perceived threat of evaluation and to maximize the actually observing students’ real motivation levels.

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