Definition of Problem Solving Technique

Definition of Problem Solving Technique
Based on Gok and Silay (2010: 7) One of the fundamental achievements of education is to enable students to use their knowledge in problem solving, problem solving refers to the effort needed in achieving a goal or finding a solution when no automatic solution is available
Kerns and Mendelson (2006: 9) defines the Problem Solving is a technique to helps of develop the communicative competence and critical thinking skills. It uses students' concerns and problems as a subject for discussion. Students practice language skills by making informed decisions based on a variety of solutions and their consequences.
DeWitt, Alias and Siraj (2014: 2) point out that the problem solving is not an easy task as it requires higher order thinking skills. In Bloom’s taxonomy, problem solving is categorised at the highest level of cognitive knowledge. Problem solving is an important skill as it enables students to critically evaluate arguments, and to develop and support their own arguments.
According to Mataka et. al (2014: 164) among the lifelong learning skills that students of all ages need to acquire is problem-solving, a problem is whenever there is a gap between where you are now and where you want to be, and you don't know how to find a way to cross that gap. Therefore, finding this ‘way’ is an important part of problem solving. In addition Imane (2016: 34) defines problems in speaking related to behavior and psychology such as difficulty to work in groups , anxiety , low self confidence , shyness , the fear of talking in front of audience...
In addition Kirkley (2013: 3) problem solving was viewed as amechanical, systematic, and often abstract (decontextualized) set of skills, such as those used to solve riddles or mathematical equations. These problems often have correct answers that are based on logical solutions with a single correct answer (convergent reasoning). Under the influence of cognitive learning theories, problem solving shifted to represent a complex mental activity consisting of a variety of cognitive skills and actions. Problem solving included higher order thinking skills such as "visualization, association, abstraction, comprehension, manipulation, reasoning, analysis, synthesis, generalization each needing to be 'managed' and 'coordinated'

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